Lec1_web - Course materials:...

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Course materials: http://courses.ncsu.edu/ bch453/lec/001/
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DNA RNA Protein Reverse Transcription Replication Transcription Translation Central Dogma RNA Modification
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The Four Classes of Biological Macromolecules: Nucleic Acids Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids In this class we will focus on Proteins and Nucleic Acids. Introduction
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All of these biological macromolecules are Polymers of smaller molecules. Proteins Amino Acids RNA/DNA Nucleotides In this course, we will focus on the structure and chemistry of nucleotides. In BCH455/555 – focus is on amino acid chemistry, protein structure and protein function.
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As we go through this discussion, it is important to keep in mind: - These molecules are Three- Dimensional - These molecules are Dynamic - that is they are Flexible and can Change Shape. The Three-Dimensional and Dynamic Nature of the nucleic acids have a great affect on their function.
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Nucleotide structural components: Nucleotide Pentose Sugar / Base / PO 4 2- Nucleoside Pentose Sugar / Base The Bases are derivatives of either pyrimidine or purine.
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N N N N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 N N 1 2 3 4 5 6 Purine Pyrimidine Base Structure:
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Four Important Properties of Base Structure and Chemistry? 1. Ring Chemistry 2. Ring Structure 3. Solubility 4. Modification
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Ring Chemistry . - The Ring is “Aromatic” in Character. - That is, is there a resonance character to the pi electrons in the ring? - Remember: Aromatic = a compound with three C=C double bonds in a ring. - If we consider Benzene, for example: - The Double Bonds are shared pi-electrons. C C C C C C
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C C C C C C
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How does Nitrogen in the Ring affect this electronic distribution? - Nitrogen is: - Electronegative - Not “Aromatic” - Uneven electron distribution or sharing. - Therefore, the bases are described as “pseudoaromatic”.
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2. Ring Structure - The Benzene Ring is Planar - The Nucleotide Base is also Planar - C/N < 0.1 Å out of plane - This feature is very important for nucleic acid structure and base stacking.
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3. Base Solubility in Water . - The bases are not very soluble in water. - This is an important consequence for nucleic acid structure and interaction with the water solvent. - It results in base stacking to maximize hydrophobic interactions. - Within cells, most purine and pyrimidine bases occur as part of nucleotides and polynucleotides – these compounds are highly water soluble.
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. Base Modification . Base modifications change the chemical and structural character of the base. These are
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This note was uploaded on 09/11/2008 for the course BCH 453 taught by Professor Clark during the Fall '08 term at N.C. State.

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Lec1_web - Course materials:...

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