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brain neurology ch 17

brain neurology ch 17 - Ch 17 Anxiety disorders unrealistic...

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Ch. 17 Anxiety disorders- unrealistic, unfounded fear and anxiety o Panic disorder- episodic attacks of acute anxiety, periods of acute terror that affect them 4m a few seconds 2 a few hours; onset in young adulthood; physical symptoms- shortness of breath, clammy sweat, irregular heartbeat, dizziness, faintness, feelings of unreality; triggered 4m family history; more frequent in females Anticipatory anxiety- fear another panic attack will strike; occurs btw panic attacks among ppl w/panic disorders; often leads 2 agoraphobia Agoraphobia- fear of being in places where they will have difficulties escaping during a panic attack cingulated, prefrontal, and anterior temporal cortexes involved in panic attacks Can be alleviated by drug benzodiazepine maybe caused by decreased numbers of benzodiazepine receptors or blockage of benzodiazepine binding site at GABA receptor; benzodiazepine antagonist can trigger panic attack treated today with SSRIs (Serotonin specified reuptake inhibitors), which activates 5-HT1A receptors 5-HT1A receptors play roles in development of brain parts that play roles in anxiety symptoms Presence of 2 short alleles in 5-HTT causes increased activation of amygdale and higher levels of anxiety triggered by conditions activating Autonomic Nervous System, like caffeine, yohimbine, injection of lactate, inhalation of air with excess CO2 cingulated, prefrontal, and anterior temporal cortexes involved in panic attacks o Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)- suffer 4m obsessions that cannot leave them and compulsions, or behaviors they cannot keep 4m performing; exaggeration of human tendencies; heritable basis associated w/Tourette’s Syndrome; possibly an inbalance btw direct and indirect pathways Compulsions: counting, checking, cleaning, avoidance brain damage or dysfunction of basal ganglia, cingulated gyrus, and prefrontal cortex, symptoms of OCD produced by damage 2 basal ganglia (remember, prefrontal and cingulate cortex involved in emotional responses, so they have increased activity during a panic attack and within OCD patients) Tourette’s Syndrome- neurological disorder appearing in childhood; characterized by muscular and vocal tics, facial grimaces, squatting, pacing, twirling, baking, sniffing, coughing,
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grunting, or repeating specific words, esp vulgarities; can be caused by brain damage at birth, esp when basal ganglia involved Treatment: antischizophrenic drugs that block dopamine D2 receptors A type A Beta-hemolytic streptococcus infection can stimulate an
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