ch 15 neurological disorders

ch 15 neurological disorders - Ch. 15- Neurological...

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Ch. 15- Neurological Disorders Tumors- mass of cells whose growth is uncontrolled, serves no useful function; some are malignant (cancerous) and some are benign (harmless); can determine whether benign or malignant based on whether or not encapsulated; produce brain damage by compression, and in case of malignant tumors, infiltration o Benign tumors- (harmless); tumor is encapsulated, meaning there is a distinct border btw the mass of tumor cells and surrounding tissue; in this case, surgeon can cut out the tumor and it won’t regrow Meningioma- encapsulated, benign tumor consisting of cells 4m dura mater or arachnoid membrane; tumor near top of primary motor cortex; characterized by sudden seizures; composed of cells 4m meninges o Malignant tumors- cancerous; tumor is not encapsulated, and grows by infiltrating surrounding tissue; no clear-cut border btw tumor and normal tissue Metastases- malignant tumors often give rise to this; metastasizing tumor will shed cells, then travel 2 bloodstream, lodge in capillaries, and cause new tumors to grow in different body locations Metastases and the gliomas- very malignant and fast growing; metastases of glial cells Seizure disorder- aka epilepsy; seizure is a period of sudden, excessive activity of cerebral neurons; sometimes can cause a convulsion, but usually doesn’t; 2 distinctions: partial seizures vs. generalized seizures, and simple versus complex seizures; usually caused by scarring produced 4m injury, stroke, the irritating effect of a growing tumor, o Seizures 4m recovering drug/alcohol addicts- occurs when addicts stop intaking drugs/alcohol and inhibiting effects of drug leaves brain in hyperexcitable condition (rebound, or re-uptake of NBDA receptors); disorders treated w/anticonvulsant drugs (increase inhibitory synapses) o Convulsion- wild, uncontrollable activity of muscles o Partial seizures- definite focus, or source of irritation (usually scarred region 4m old injury); neurons involved in seizure are restricted to small part of brain Simple partial seizures- often causes changes in consciousness, but does not cause loss of consciousness Complex partial seizures- leads to loss of consciousness o Generalized seizures- widespread, involving most of brain; often grown 4m a focus, but sometimes origin is not discovered; Grand mal- most severe form of seizure; generalized; includes motor system, so causes convulsions; b4 grand mal seizure, person often has warning symptoms (changes in mood, few sudden jerks of muscles); a few seconds b4 seizure occurs, experiences an aura; beginning of seizure called tonic phase, ends w/clonic phase; neural firing begins during aura, then spreads 2 regions
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surrounding the focus, then 2 cortralateral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, and various nuclei of brain stem formation; Aura- occurs few seconds b4 grand mal; caused by excitation of neurons surrounding a seizure focus; nature of aura depends on location of focus; EX: seizures 4m
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ch 15 neurological disorders - Ch. 15- Neurological...

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