Ch 18 notes

Ch 18 notes - Ch. 18 Drug Abuse Addictive drugs have...

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Ch. 18 Drug Abuse Addictive drugs have reinforcing effects Fortunately, most ppl don’t become addicted Our reinforcement mechanism evolved 2 deal w/immediate effects of behavior o So ppl prefer heroin 2 morphine b/c heroins effect occurs more rapidly o Immediacy is btw imagined act and a reinforcing stimulus—euphoria produced by drug Positive reinforcement- occurs when behavior is regularly followed by an appetitive stimulus o Most drugs have positive reinforcement, the reinforcement being the drug- taking behavior o 4 positive reinforcement 2 take place, release of dopamine in nucleus accumbens is necessary (but not essential) o Faster drug produces effects, the more quickly dependence will be est Negative reinforcement- occurs with a behavior that turns off, or reduces, an aversive stimulus o Ex: person who feels unhappy/anxious takes a drug that reduces these feelings If person regularly takes a drug, they build tolerance o Tolerance- decreased sensitivity to a drug coming 4m continuous use; drug user needs larger and larger amounts 4 drug 2 be effective Decrease in sensitivity 2 receptors of drug OR decrease in intracellular mechanism responsible 4 drug’s effects o Tolerance of a drug is a compensation mechanism of the brain 2 resist long-term disruption of it’s normal activity o Compensatory activity of neural circuits can be classically conditioned 2 resist changes invoked by stimuli associated w/drug or place where it’s taken o These stimulis can intensify cravings If they stop taking the drug after regularly taking them, they face withdrawal o Withdrawal symptoms- opposite of effects of drug; ex: heroin dysphoria, cramping, diarrhea, agitation] o Symptoms can be induced by stimulating periaqueductal gray matter Craving- urge to take a drug 2 which one has become addicted 2;
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This note was uploaded on 09/18/2008 for the course PSYC 326 taught by Professor Chambers,lavond during the Fall '05 term at USC.

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Ch 18 notes - Ch. 18 Drug Abuse Addictive drugs have...

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