behavioral neuro Ch 16

behavioral neuro Ch 16 - Ch 16- schizophrenia and the...

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Ch 16- schizophrenia and the affective disorders Schizophrenia- characterized by 3 categories of symptoms: positive, negative, and cognitive; a thought disorder is most important symptom; have great difficulty in arranging thoughts logically and sort absurd conclusions; heritable (biological basis); symptoms typically appear gradually, negative cognitive positive; affects 1% of world; most patients exhibit neurological symptoms (neg and cog) suggesting brain damage; can be induced through abnormal brain development (mostly prenatal), environmental or obstetric complications o Positive Symptoms- symptoms evident by presence; consist of delusions, hallucinations, or thought disorders; involve excessive activity in neural circuits containing dopamine as a neurotransmitter; symptoms unique 2 schizophrenia Delusions- beliefs obviously contrary 2 fact delusions of grandeur, delusions of control, delusions of persecution Hallucinations- perceptions of stimuli not actually there; most common one’s are auditory, but can involve all senses Thought disorder- disorganized, irrational thinking Dopamine hypothesis- positive symptoms caused by hyperactivity of synapses btw dopaminergic neurons (of ventral tegmental area and neurons in nucleus accumbens/amygdala) Tardive dyskinesia- movement disordered that can occur after pro- longed use of antipsychotic medication; usually develops later on; symptoms are inability to stop moving (opposite of Parkinson’s); commonly occurs when Parkinson’s patients receive too much L- DOPA supersensitivity Supersensitivity- compensatory mechanism where some types of receptors become more sensitive if they are inhibited 4 a period of time by a drug that blocks them While some drugs, (ie: chlorpromazine), work as antagonists of dopaminergic transmission, others work oppositely as dopamine agonists, producing positive symptoms (ie: amphetamine, cocaine, methylphenidate, L-DOPA); o Negative Symptoms- absence or diminution of normal behaviors: flattened emotional response, poverty of speech, lack of initiative and persistence, anhedonia (inability 2 experience pleasure), and social withdrawal; caused by developmental or degenerative processes that impair normal brain functioning of certain regions o Cognitive symptoms- symptoms include difficulty sustaining attention, low psychomotor speed (ability 2 rapidly/fluently perform movements of fingers, hands, legs), deficits in learning and memory, poor abstract thinking, and poor problem solving;
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behavioral neuro Ch 16 - Ch 16- schizophrenia and the...

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