Ch. 13 notes

Ch. 13 notes - Ch. 13- Learning and Memory Learning-...

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Ch. 13- Learning and Memory Learning- process which experiences change our nervous system and thus, our behavior (4 types) o Perceptual Learning- ability to learn to recognize stimuli that have already been perceived before; learning to identify and categorize objects and situations; accomplished primarily through changes in sensory association cortex (which stimulates visual and auditory cortex); ex: when we hear someone talk, we may recognize words they are saying and maybe their emotional state ; involves changes in connections within visual association cortex that establish new neural circuits later on, when same stimulus is seen, same pattern of activity is transmitted 2 visual cortex and circuits are active again (causing recognition of stimulus); damage to inferior temporal cortex disrupts visual perceptual learning Perceptual short-term memory- memory for stimulus or event that lasts for a short while, usually few seconds; activates circuits of recognition, remembering, response; unlike perceptual memory alone, short-term memory involves prefrontal cortex\ Delayed-matching-to-sample task- task requiring subject to indicate which of several stimuli had just been perceived o Stimulus-Response Learning- ability to learn to perform a particular behavior when a particular stimulus is present; learning to establish connections between perception and movement circuits; begins in sensory association cortex and ends in motor association cortex of frontal lobe; 2 types: classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning (aka operant) Hebb Rule- if synapse is repeatedly fired at the same time that the postsynaptic neuron fires, the structure or chemistry of the synapse will be strengthened (result of classical or operant conditioning) Classical Conditioning- emotional response behavior involves amygdala, where basal nucleus and accessory basal nucleus are connected to central nucleus, which controls emotional responses; classical conditioning changes response to neurons to conditioned stimulus this synaptic plasticity is NMDA-long-term potentiation Instrumental Conditioning- entails strengthening connections between neural circuits that detect stimuli and circuits that produce responses; changes involved in learning automated and routine behaviors occur in the basal ganglia, which receives sensory info about plans for movement 4m neocortex; stimulation of medial forebrain bundle produces strong reinforcement effects; dopamine plays major role in reinforcement and are located in ventral tegmental area; conditions that facilitate learning are novelty or expectation of reinforcing stimulus; prefrontal cortex plays role in reinforcement when our own behavior brings us closer to a goal Medial forebrain bundle (MFB)- fiber bundle that runs through basal forebrain and lateral hypothalamus; stimulation of axons causes reinforcement
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Ventral tegmental area (VTA)-group of dopaminergic
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Ch. 13 notes - Ch. 13- Learning and Memory Learning-...

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