9-3 - The Chemical Basis of Life (I) (Chapter 2, p32-41)...

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The Chemical Basis of Life (I) (Chapter 2, p32-41) Chemical bonds Covalent bonds Noncovalent bonds Water pH Buffers van der Waals forces Hydrophobic interactions Hydrogen bonds Ionic bonds
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1. The number of positive charges in its nucleus; 2. The distance of the outer electrons from the nucleus.
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Covalent Bonds Atoms joined by a single bond are able to rotate relative to one another. Single bond: such as in H 2 O, H:O:H Double bond: such as in O 2 , O::O Triple bond: such as in N 2 , N::N :: Quadruple bond: not known Double bonds can function as energy capturing centers.
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Molecular Polarity Nonpolar molecules:
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Polar molecules:
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Noncovalent Bonds van der Waals forces Hydrophobic interactions Hydrogen bonds Ionic bonds
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Ionization 2 Na + + 2 Na + Cl:Cl . .. .. .. .. . . . . 2 Cl - . . . . .. .. 2 Na Cl . . .. .. . . Ion Anion Cation
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Cells are composed primarily of water, therefore bonds between free ions are of little importance. In contrast, weak ionic bonds (about 3 kcal/mole) between oppositely charged groups of large biological molecules are of considerable importance.
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van der Waals forces Hydrophobic interactions Hydrogen bonds (2-5 kcal/mole) Ionic bonds Weak attractive interaction
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This note was uploaded on 09/18/2008 for the course PCB 3134 taught by Professor Multiple during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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9-3 - The Chemical Basis of Life (I) (Chapter 2, p32-41)...

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