9-8 - Chapter III Bioenergetics, Enzymes, and Metabolism...

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Chapter III Bioenergetics, Enzymes, and Metabolism
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Bioenergetics A living cell must acquire and expend energy    to synthesize macromolecules from raw materials,    to produce and excrete waste products,    to transmit genetic information from DNA to protein,    to move vesicles,    to transport ions across cell membranes. The study of various types of energy transformations    that occur in living organisms.
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Energy is the capacity to do work. Potential Energy:   Potential Energy exists whenever an object which has mass has a position    within a force field. The most everyday example of this is the position    of objects in the earth's gravitational field.  PE = mgh    PE = Energy (in Joules)  m = mass (in kilograms)  g = gravitational acceleration of the earth (9.8 m/sec 2 h = height above earth's surface (in meters)   Kinetic Energy:   Kinetic Energy exists whenever an object which has mass is in motion with    some velocity. KE = (1/2)mv 2     KE = Energy (in Joules)  m = mass (in kilograms)  v = velocity (in meters/sec) 
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Conservation of Energy    - The First Law of Thermodynamics This principle asserts that in a closed system energy    is conserved.   Energy can neither be created or    destroyed. However, it can be converted from one    form to another form.
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system surroundings System: a certain space or a certain amount           of matter under study Surroundings: the reminder of the universe Internal energy (E): the energy of a system E = Q – W U = in - out Q:  the heat energy W: the work energy
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9-8 - Chapter III Bioenergetics, Enzymes, and Metabolism...

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