ch. 16 The Americas, the Atlantic and Africa

Ch 16 The - Chapter 16 The Americas the Atlantic and Africa I Spanish America and Brazil A smallpox carried in the Caribbean killing most of the

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Chapter 16 The Americas, the Atlantic, and Africa I. Spanish America and Brazil A) smallpox carried in the Caribbean, killing most of the native peoples there. It had killed 50 percent or more of the Amerindian population of Mexico and central America. 1) French fur traders --> transmitted measles, smallpox, and other diseases as far as Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes. 2) The colonies of the Americas were crucial pieces of a new Atlantic system. A) Atlantic System = this network of trading links moved people and cultures as well as goods and wealth around the Atlantic. a) Also affected Africa, but less severely than the Americas. b) Despite the loss of millions of people to the slave trade, Africa did not suffer such severe population loss as the Americas. 3) Early settlers from Spain and Portugal sought to create colonial societies based on the institutions and customers of their homelands. B) State and Church 1) the Spanish crown moved quickly to curb the independent power of the conquistadors and establish royal authority over both the defeated native populations and the rising tide of European settlers. A) Council of the Indies – in Spain supervised all government, ecclesiastical, and commercial activity in the Spanish colonies. B) Bartolome de las casas = who served as the most important advocate for native peoples, wrote a number of books that detailed their mistreatment by the Spanish. a) He enacted the News Laws of 1642 = which outlawed the enslavement of Amerindians and limited other forms of forced labor. C) Colonial Economies 1) profits produced in these economic centers also promoted the growth of colonial cities, concentrated scarce investment capital and labor resources, and stimulated the development of livestock raising and agriculture in neighboring rural areas.
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2) The single richest silver deposit in the Americas was discovered at Potosi which is now Bolivia and silver production of Bolivia and Peru dominated the Spanish colonial economy. 3) In Spanish colonies, Amerindian peoples were divided among the settlers and were to provide them with labor or with textiles, food, or other goods. This form of forced labor was called the encomienda. A) The discovery of silver in Peru led to a new form of compulsory called the mita B) under this system, 1/7 of the adult male Amerindians wre compelled to work for six months each year in mines or on farms or in textile factories. C) The Portuguese had developed sugar plantations that depended on slave labor on the Atlantic islands of Madeira, the Azores, the Cape Verdes, transferred this profitable form of agriculture to Brazil. D) Sugar dominated the Brazilian economy. At first, the Portuguese enslaved Amerindian men as field hands, but sugar planters came to rely more on African slaves who were more resistant to disease. E) The mining centers of Latin America exercised global
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2008 for the course HIST 011 taught by Professor Halladay,carolyn during the Spring '08 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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Ch 16 The - Chapter 16 The Americas the Atlantic and Africa I Spanish America and Brazil A smallpox carried in the Caribbean killing most of the

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