anthro Exam 1

anthro Exam 1 - Terms for Anthro Exam 1: Study Guide Class...

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Terms for Anthro Exam 1: Study Guide Class 2: Theory- explanations of general observed patterns Hypothesis-an educated and informed guess. Paradigm- generally accepted thought throughout the scholars of a particular field. Cycle of Science- Evolution- descent with modification, resulting from a process of natural selection, and resulting in adaptive change in the gene pool at the species level. Adaptation- Biological, ecological, and behavioral processes by which organisms (and, sometimes, species) change in terms of form or function, in order to cope with environmental stresses, including those deriving from cultural practices. Principles of Evolution- law of biotic potential, within any gene pool organisms vary in their ability to survive and reproduce, traits that influence survival and reproductive success may be inherited, if heritable these traits will become the established ones in the population. Law of biotic potential- a species will always overproduce then what is available in terms of resources. Natural selection- survival of the fittest. Age of Discovery- AD 1500 global exploration, technological discoveries and developments, concepts arose of unchanging earth centered around universe. Probabilism- possibility of occurrence. Based on observation of previous similar events. Anthropology- study of humans(physical and cultural) throughout the world, through the entire history. Universe. Age of milky way galaxy- present universe is 13.7 million years old, milky way is 10 billion years old. EARTH age of earliest life forms- earth is 4.5 billion years old, earliest life forms started 3 bya (simple lacked cell nuclei, i.e. algae) Paleozoic- 600mya-230mya-simple cells, fish amphibians Mesozoic-230mya-70mya reptiles and dinosaurs Cenozoic-70mya-present mammals 3 age sequence- Three-age sequence A classification system developed by C. J. Thomsen which orders the cultural remains of the Old World into three major phases based on the raw material of such remains and technology, that is, the Stone Age is oldest, then the Bronze Age, and then the Iron Age. Inherent in this system is the idea that a chronological order could be achieved by placing things in this sequence.
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Differential access to key resources- Deductive reasoning- process by which one takes a general theory and derives from it specific cases of application; general to specific. Inductive reasoning- process by which one observes specific cases and then formulates a general theory from the info; Specific to general. Replicability-The ability of different scientists using the same methods of observation or experimentation to achieve the same results. Intersubjectivity- The validated correspondence of the subjective perceptions of different scientific observers. Superposition-The principle that the order of deposition in stratified material under normal circumstances
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anthro Exam 1 - Terms for Anthro Exam 1: Study Guide Class...

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