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HDFS_notes - FIRST CLASS NOTEBOOK Behaviorism 1 Present a...

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1/17/08 FIRST CLASS NOTEBOOK Behaviorism 1) Present a stimulus a. *(very effective)Positive reinforcement= increased behavior/good stimulus i. Getting something(could be reward or not) for an act(even if it is wrong the reward is positive) b. Positive punishment= decreased behavior/bad stimulus i. Spanking and yelling for doing something wrong, could cause anxiety for child( got something,spanking) meant to decrease an act 2) Remove a stimulus a. Negative reinforcement= increased behavior/bad stimulus i. Nagging, nag until do something and stop after she does what they wanted 1. so she does the hw just to avoid the nagging BUT she will do it still rewarded but by not getting yelled opposed to getting something which will be positive b. Negative punishment= decreased behavior/good stimulus i. Time out removes fun stimulus’s 1. must be boring shouldn’t be room 3) Social learning theory a. Bandura i. Observational learning 1. Children can learn just from observing 2. If a child sees someone punished for something the child will be less likely to do that behavior to avoid punishment 3. Bobo Doll Experiment a. How do children exposed to someone being aggressive impact that child b. Took two groups of children one being control and one being experimental, in control group a model adult played appropriately with toys, while the experimental group observed a model adult being aggressive with his play(hitting the heck out of a bobo doll) i. Children in experimental condition were significantly likely to be more aggressive to the bobo doll ii. Control conditions did not show that aggression iii. Violent tv watching lead kids to be more violent and crime as adults 4) What has the biggest impact on a child’s development? a. Environment
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i. How the are punished and reinforced ii. How the observe others Evolutionary Theory or evolutionary psychology 1) Darwin a. Through evolution human beings have evolved certain characteristics and abilities that ensure survival, but also thrive in their environment b. Naturally selected set of behaviors/biology i. Over the course of human evolution certain behavior characteristics have been selected and passed on to future generations 1. large brains, opposable thumbs, bipedal ii. general development 1. reflexes, attachment a. moro reflex- when an infant is dropped it tries to grab onto something automatically b. Adults think babies are cute and come to a babies aid when it cries c. Environmental adaptation i. Humans are able to adjust their behaviors and personality to get the resources and the care that they need ii. American children are more individual due to sleeping alone iii. Children that are encouraged to ask questions become more inquisitive, while abusive households lead to a shy and introverted child iv. Individual differences 1. Uniqueness Evolutionary theory 1) What has the biggest impact on a child’s development a. Once were born into the world we are able to adapt our behaviors to ensure our survival b. Biology they are born with Ecological Systems Theory 1)
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