Final_study08 - FinalExammaterial_TheWaterPlanet

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Final Exam material _ The Water Planet What are the most important forces controlling air movements in the atmosphere? -temperature and pressure differences (sun’s heat and earth’s rotation) What is the difference between weather and climate? -weather is the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place and climate is the average condition at a given time. Which processes control air movement (wind)? Which factors control wind velocity? How does it vary from ground level upward? -process that control air movement- 1. The air pressure gradient- movement is the result of nature’s attempt to eliminate pressure differences. 2. The Coriolis effect- consequence of earth’s rotation- shift air movements to the right (left) in northern (southern) hemisphere. 3. Friction- ground level winds are slowed by friction with the earth’s system. - factors control wind velocity- -varies from ground level upward- 1.Inward spiral flow in a cyclone causes convergence, which leads to an upward flow of air at the center of the low. 2. The outward spiral flow in an anticyclone causes divergence which leads to an outward flow if air from the center. What is geostrophic wind? -Winds that result from a balance between pressure gradient flow and the Coriolis deflection. What is the Hadley Cell? Ferrell Cell? What are the causes for these circulation patterns? -Hadley cell- the rising warm air at the equator causes low pressure in the tropics and a zone of convergence known as the intertropical convergence zone -Ferrell Cell- they are driven by the mid latitude poleward circulation created high pressure divergence at 30 degrees N/ 30 degrees S -causes for these circulation patterns- solar heating What are the prevailing wind systems on Earth? Why do they form? -prevailing wind systems- trade winds; the prevailing westerlies, the polar easterlies - They form because- What are the causes and the main characteristics of monsoons? -caused by the larger amplitude of the seasonal cycle of land temperature compared to that of nearby oceans. The specific heat of liquid water is significantly higher than that of most materials that make up land. -characteristics- During the summer, monsoon winds blow from the cooler ocean surfaces onto the warmer continents. Precipitation is normally associated with the summer monsoons. Onshore winds blowing inland from the warm ocean are very
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high in humidity, and slight cooling of these air masses causes condensation and rain. In the winter, the wind patterns reverse as the ocean surfaces are now warmer. Recently, there is a lot of talk on the consequences of increasing greenhouse effect to the earth's climate. Would we be better off without the greenhouse effect? -no, the greenhouse effect is what makes the earth habitable. Without it, the
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This note was uploaded on 09/19/2008 for the course GEOLOGY 206 taught by Professor Quinn during the Spring '06 term at Rutgers.

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Final_study08 - FinalExammaterial_TheWaterPlanet

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