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Exam 3 Study guide - Terms to know for Exam III Agencies of...

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Terms to know for Exam III Agencies of socialization – the groups of people, along with the interactions that occur within those groups, that influence a person's social development. Agenda Setting – the process by which it is determined which issues are taken up by political actors and institutions. Allocation of functions – Allocation of responsibility – Attitude – a specific preference on a specific issue. Australian Ballot – an electoral format that presents the names of all the candidates for any given office on the same ballot. It was introduced at the end of the 18 th century, this ballot replaced the partisan ballot and facilitated split-ticket voting. Bandwagon effect – a shift in electoral support to the candidate whom public opinion polls report as the front runner. Benign gerrymandering – it is designed to increase minority representation in congress. Bureaucracy – the complex structure of offices, tasks, rules and principles of organizations that are employed by al large scale institutions to coordinate the work of their personnel. Business Group – a legal entity that is a type of conglomerate or holding company consisting of a parent company and subsidiaries. Campaign – an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making process within a specific group. Civic engagement – promoting the quality of life in a community, through both political and non-political processes. Closed primary – voters can participate in the nomination of only those candidates of the party in which they have been enrolled for a period of time before primary day. Closed questions – a question that can be answered with either yes or no. Coattail effect – A prominent politician's ability to help a less well-known candidate of the same party at the polls, based solely on his or her popularity. Collective action – the provision of public goods through the collaboration of two or more individuals, and the impact of externalities on group behavior. Collective action dilemma –
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Collective goods/benefits – consumption of the good by one individual does not reduce the amount of the good available for consumption by others; and no one can be effectively excluded from using that good. Complexity – Conservative – those who generally support the social and economic status quo and are suspicious of efforts to introduce new political formulas and economic arrangements. Many also believe that a large and powerful government poses a threat to citizens’ freedoms. Cracking – Decision-making – an outcome of mental processes cognitive process leading to the selection of a course of action among several alternatives. Delegates – a representative who votes according on to the preference of his or her constituency.
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