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Ant 204 lecture 8 - Get the kinship maps next class...

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Get the kinship maps next class Economic Systems 1. Introduction We are all part of anthropology. Functionalists came up with a neutral way of talking about different types of cultures, religion, traditions etc. 2. Substantivism, Formalism, Marxism Argued about the ways in understanding economic system. They said that we already have the terms provided by the economists. They said we don’t neet any new terms Key idea: Homo economicus : Said homo:genus name All humans at all time try to minimize input and maximize output. Always try to get most time, resources, and efforts. In other words, we are all profit seekers even in terms of affection. Most for the least. Wanted to use terms like money, price and profit. Our job as anthropologists is to learn other ways of living but not necessarily take them Substantivism : said we can’t come up with a single way of knowing economic production as not all cultures view the same way Need to have a neutral way that can be applied to all the cultures. Others said that all are the same Both sides right and wrong. Formalists: said that there is a need to have singular concepts Marxism 1. Production, 2. Exchange and 3. Consumption Focusing on Production and Exchange
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Production : A human act and try to transfer something form environment and change into something of a used value and exchange. Objects can be untouchable things like ideas apart from materialistic things. Everything we have got has come from an exchange. We distinguish them because lots of things in different cultures can be used but not exchanged and vice versa. We ask 4 questions: 1. Who produces what in the society Talk about division of labour All societies will have two kids of divisions: Gender division of labour : Not based on biological differences Many societies where they are the heavy lifters and demanding , farming work and man don’t. E.g. women are maternal caregivers and other places women don’t do anything. Therefore don’t know in advance Children, Adults and Elderly will have different tasks to do. In some society: children may be required to do a lot of work and considered old early. Others: become elderly early and don’t do anything.Therefore, overlay of social and cultural ideas. Different jobs: Nobody is self sufficient. One person cannot produce everything. Most of us don’t produce food at all Intermediate: One or two jobs where people don’t have to provide their own food. Like: religious leaders, medical proactionationer, politicians. If not employed means that subsistence strategy can produce a surplus without them. Another case is that people are so significan that they are not required to do this job. Need to have social significance that somebody else in the society is ready to feed them.
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