CH%20302%20Zumdahl%20Chapter%207c%20acid%20base%20equilibrium%20sp08

CH%20302%20Zumdahl%20Chapter%207c%20acid%20base%20equilibrium%20sp08

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1 Chapter 7c ± Ionic Equilibria: Acids and Bases 2 Acid-Base Properties of Salts ± Soluble salts (ionic compounds) dissolve in water to produce ions. ² In particular, salts that contain group IA metals, NO 3 , and NH 4 + ions usually dissolve to produce ions. ± Some salts dissolve to produce ions that do not change the pH of water. ² These are salts that produce neutral solution. ± Some salts dissolve that produce strong conjugates of acids or bases. ² These are salts that produce either basic or acidic solution. 3 Acid-Base Properties of Salts ± Examples of salts that produce neutral solutions: ² NaCl (aq) Na + (aq) + Cl (aq) ² KNO 3 (aq) K + (aq) + NO 3 ( aq) ² Na 2 SO 4 (aq) 2 Na + (aq) + SO 4 2– (aq) ² LiClO 4 (aq) Li + (aq) + ClO 4 (aq) ² KBr (aq) K + (aq) + Br (aq) ± Weak conjugates bases of strong acids are produced and do not upset the balance of H 3 O + & OH in neutral water.
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4 Acid-Base Properties of Salts ± Examples of salts that produce basic or acidic solutions: ² Na 2 CO 3 (aq) 2Na + (aq) + CO 3 2– (aq) ² KF (aq) K + (aq) + F (aq) ² NaCH 3 COO (aq) 2 Na + (aq) + CH 3 COO (aq) ² NH 4 Cl (aq) NH 4 + (aq) + Cl (aq) ² NH 4 CH 3 COO (aq) NH + (aq) + CH 3 COO (aq) ± Strong conjugates bases of strong acids, strong conjugate acids of weak bases or both are produced. ± These strong conjugates react with water and do upset the balance of H 3 O + & OH in neutral water. 5 Solvolysis This reaction process is the most difficult concept in this chapter. ± Solvolysis is the reaction of a substance with the solvent in which it is dissolved. ± Hydrolysis refers to the reaction of a substance with water or its ions. ± Combination of the anion of a weak acid with H 3 O + ions from water to form nonionized weak acid molecules. 6 Solvolysis ± The combination of a weak acid’s anion with H 3 O + ions, from water, to form nonionized weak acid molecules is a form of hydrolysis. + 32 22 3 A + H O HA + recall OH → ←
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7 Solvolysis ± The reaction of the anion of a weak monoprotic acid with water is commonly represented as: - 2 A HO HA OH → ++ ← 8 Solvolysis ± Recall that at 25 o C ± in neutral solutions: [H 3 O + ] = 1.0 x 10 -7 M = [OH - ] ± in basic solutions: [H 3 O + ] < 1.0 x 10 -7 M and [OH - ] > 1.0 x 10 -7 M ± in acidic solutions: [OH - ] < 1.0 x 10 -7 M and [H 3 O + ] > 1.0 x 10 -7 M 9 Solvolysis ± Remember from Br Ø nsted-Lowry acid-base theory: ² The conjugate base of a strong acid is a very weak base. ² The conjugate base of a weak acid is a stronger base. ± Hydrochloric acid, a typical strong acid, is essentially completely ionized in dilute aqueous solutions. ~100% 23 HCl H O H O Cl +− + →+
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10 Solvolysis ± The conjugate base of HCl, the Cl ion, is a very weak base. ² The chloride ion is such a weak base that it will not react with the hydronium ion.
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This note was uploaded on 09/20/2008 for the course CH 302 taught by Professor Holcombe during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas.

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CH%20302%20Zumdahl%20Chapter%207c%20acid%20base%20equilibrium%20sp08

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