CH%20302%20(post)%20Zumdahl%20Chapter%206b%20equilibrium%20sp08

CH%20302%20(post)%20Zumdahl%20Chapter%206b%20equilibrium%20sp08

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 CHAPTER 6b Chemical Equilibrium 2 The Haber Process: A Practical Application of Equilibrium The Haber process is used for the commercial production of ammonia. – This is an enormous industrial process in the US and many other countries. – Ammonia is the starting material for fertilizer production. Look at Example 8. What conditions did we predict would be most favorable for the production of ammonia? 3 The Haber Process: A Practical Application of Equilibrium ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Fe & metal oxides o 2 g 2 g 3 g 2 g 2 g o 2 N 3 H 2 NH H 92.22 kJ N is obtained from liquid air. H obtained from coal gas. This reaction is run at a T = 450 C and P of N =200 to 1000 atm. G <0 which is f + ←→ = − avorable. H <0 also favorable. S< 0 which is unfavorable. However the reaction kinetics are very slow at low temperatures. Haber's solution to this dilemma.
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
4 The Haber Process: A Practical Application of Equilibrium ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 3 Haber's solution to this dilemma. 1 Increase T to increase rate, but yield is decreased. 2 Increase reaction pressure to right. 3 Use excess N to right. 4 Remove NH periodically to right. The react 3 ion system never reaches equilibrium because NH is removed. This increases the reaction yield and helps with the kinetics! 5 6 The Haber Process: A Practical Application of Equilibrium This diagram illustrates the commercial system devised for the Haber process.
Image of page 2
7 Disturbing a System at Equilibrium: Calculations To help with the calculations, we must determine the direction that the equilibrium will shift by comparing Q with K c . Example 11: An equilibrium mixture from the following reaction was found to contain 0.20 mol/L of A, 0.30 mol/L of B, and 0.30 mol/L of C. What is the value of K c for this reaction? ( ) (g) (g) g A B + C → ← 8 Disturbing a System at Equilibrium: Calculations ( ) [ ][ ] [ ] ( )( ) ( ) (g) (g) g c A B + C Equil. []'s 0.20 0.30 0.3 0 B C 0.30 0.30 K 0.45 A . 0 0 2 M M M → ← = = = 9 Disturbing a System at Equilibrium: Calculations If the volume of the reaction vessel were suddenly doubled while the temperature remained constant, what would be the new equilibrium concentrations? 1. Calculate Q, after the volume has been doubled ( ) [ ][ ] [ ] ( )( ) ( ) (g) (g) g A B + C Equil. []'s 0.10 0. 15 0.15 B C 0.15 0.15 Q= 0 .22 A 0.10 M M M → ← = =
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
10 Disturbing a System at Equilibrium: Calculations Since Q < K c the reaction will shift to the right to re- establish the equilibrium.
Image of page 4
Image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern