CH%20302%20(post)%20Zumdahl%20Chapter%206b%20equilibrium%20sp08

CH%20302%20(post)%20Zumdahl%20Chapter%206b%20equilibrium%20sp08

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1 CHAPTER 6b Chemical Equilibrium 2 The Haber Process: A Practical Application of Equilibrium The Haber process is used for the commercial production of ammonia. – This is an enormous industrial process in the US and many other countries. – Ammonia is the starting material for fertilizer production. Look at Example 8. What conditions did we predict would be most favorable for the production of ammonia? 3 The Haber Process: A Practical Application of Equilibrium ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Fe & metal oxides o 2 g 2 g 3 g 2 g 2 g o 2 N 3 H 2 NH H 92.22 kJ N is obtained from liquid air. H obtained from coal gas. This reaction is run at a T = 450 C and P of N =200 to 1000 atm. G <0 which is f + ←→ = − avorable. H <0 also favorable. S< 0 which is unfavorable. However the reaction kinetics are very slow at low temperatures. Haber's solution to this dilemma.

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4 The Haber Process: A Practical Application of Equilibrium ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 3 Haber's solution to this dilemma. 1 Increase T to increase rate, but yield is decreased. 2 Increase reaction pressure to right. 3 Use excess N to right. 4 Remove NH periodically to right. The react 3 ion system never reaches equilibrium because NH is removed. This increases the reaction yield and helps with the kinetics! 5 6 The Haber Process: A Practical Application of Equilibrium This diagram illustrates the commercial system devised for the Haber process.
7 Disturbing a System at Equilibrium: Calculations To help with the calculations, we must determine the direction that the equilibrium will shift by comparing Q with K c . Example 11: An equilibrium mixture from the following reaction was found to contain 0.20 mol/L of A, 0.30 mol/L of B, and 0.30 mol/L of C. What is the value of K c for this reaction? ( ) (g) (g) g A B + C → ← 8 Disturbing a System at Equilibrium: Calculations ( ) [ ][ ] [ ] ( )( ) ( ) (g) (g) g c A B + C Equil. []'s 0.20 0.30 0.3 0 B C 0.30 0.30 K 0.45 A . 0 0 2 M M M → ← = = = 9 Disturbing a System at Equilibrium: Calculations If the volume of the reaction vessel were suddenly doubled while the temperature remained constant, what would be the new equilibrium concentrations? 1. Calculate Q, after the volume has been doubled ( ) [ ][ ] [ ] ( )( ) ( ) (g) (g) g A B + C Equil. []'s 0.10 0. 15 0.15 B C 0.15 0.15 Q= 0 .22 A 0.10 M M M → ← = =

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10 Disturbing a System at Equilibrium: Calculations Since Q < K c the reaction will shift to the right to re- establish the equilibrium.
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