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Nur 0003Lab 1 - Endocrine Histology A. Anatomy/ Hormones1.Be able to locate these major endocrine organs on models or figuresPituitaryoBe sure to look over the ppt of the anterior and posterior pituitary with the infundibulum, portal system and tract.oAnterior Pituitary aka AdenohypophysisGrowth hormone Most tissues (muscular/skeletal/connective) to Increase metabolism & growthProlactinTargets mammary glands & stimulates them to lactateAdrenocorticotropic hormoneTargets the adrenal glands to release hormonesThyroid Stimulating hormoneTargets the thyroid to produce THFollicle Stimulating hormoneTargets the follicles of the ovaries and the seminiferous tubules Follicle maturation & estrogen secretionSperm cell productionLuteinizing hormoneTargets the ovaries & testesOvulation & progesterone productionTestosterone synthesisoPosterior Pituitary aka NeurohypophysisOxytocin Targets the uterus (contraction) & mammary glands (lactation)Antidiuretic hormoneTargets the nephrons to reabsorb waterDeficiency leads to diabetes insipidusThyroid oThyroid hormoneSecreted by folliclesTargets most cells in the body to increase metabolismHypothyroidism weight gain, myxedema or cretinismHyperthyroidism Graves diseaseoCalcitoninSecreted by parafollicular cellsTargets bone, decreases osteoclast activity to lower blood Ca++ParathyroidsoParathyroid hormoneTargets bone, increases osteoclast activity to increase blood Ca++PancreasoInsulinTargets liver, skeletal muscle, fat tissue1
Nur 0003Increases intake of glucose by cellsoGlucagonTargets liver to stimulate breakdown of glycogen stores into usable glucoseAdrenalsoCortisolTargets most tissues to inhibit immune inflammatory responseoAldosteroneTargets the nephrons to increase salt (thus water) reabsorptionoAndrogens Targets many tissues for secondary sex characteristics in femalesoEpi & NorepiTargets heart, vessels, liver & fat cells – Fight or flightTestesoTestosterone Secondary sex characteristics, libido, sperm productionOvariesoEstrogen & progesteroneSecondary sex characteristics, menstrual cyclesB. Microscopic Study – these were included as ppt’s in week 1.1.Be able to identify the gland and give its major hormone, and target tissue.Pituitary - anterior and posteriorThyroid – look for follicular cellsParathyroid – look for dense cells imbedded into thyroid.Adrenals – be able to tell cortex from medullaPancreas – look for islet cellsTestes – look for Leydig cells, and seminiferous tubulesOvaries – look for follicle cells and egg.