genetics 3 - Hannah Lee BIO 315H Genetics: Mendelian...

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Hannah Lee BIO 315H Genetics: Mendelian Genetics chapter 3 -units of inheritance: Determined by Mendel that these do exist -Mendelian/Transmission genetics: Mendel’s postulates after related to the findings of the observations of chromosomes during Meiosis. They principles describe how genes are transmitted from parents to offspring and were derived directly from Mendel’s experimentation. I. Mendel used a Model Experimental Approach to Study patterns of inheritance Mendel studied physics and botany and received support from the monastery to study and research. Performed his first set of hybridization experiments in 1856. Reported results of simple genetic crosses in peas in 1865. 1. Mendel chose an organism that was easy to grow and hybridize artificially. Pea plant is self- fertilizing but easy to breed in expt. 2. Chose to follow seven visible features 3. Restricted his examination to one or very few pairs of contrasting traits in each expt 4. Kept accurate quantitative records II. The Monohybrid Cross Reveals how one trait is transmitted from generation to generation -monohybrid cross: experiment with one pair of traits. -selfing: fertilization of ovules of a plant by pollen produced by the same plant. Reproduction by self-fertilization -P 1 or parental generation: original parents and F 1 or first filial: offspring of parental and F2 -reciprocoal crosses: crosses where pollen from tall plant pollinate dwarf plants or vice versa. Ie:F1 and F2 patterns of inheritance were similar regardless of which P1 plant served as sperm and which served as egg. Mendel’s crosses were not sex dependent -particulate unit factors: proposed that these factors serve as the basic units of heredity and are passed unchanged from generation to generation. Used to explain results A. Mendel’s First Three Postulates 1. Unit factors in pairs: genetic characters are controlled by unit factors existing in pairs in individual organisms. 2. Dominance/Recessiveness: When two unlike unit factors responsible for a single character are present in a single individual, one unit factor is dominant to the other, which is said to be recessive. 3. Segregation: During the formation of gametes, the paired unit factors separate, or segregate, randomly so that each gamete receives one or the other with equal likelihood. B. Modern Genetic Terminology
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genetics 3 - Hannah Lee BIO 315H Genetics: Mendelian...

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