Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 -Four primary energy sources for...

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Chapter 2 -Four primary energy sources for earth: 1. The impact of extraterrestrial bodies 2. Gravity 3. Earth’s internal heat 4. The sun -The outward flow of energy from the Earth brings (short): eruptions and earthquakes/ (Long): continents and atmosphere. -Suns energy and gravity help (short): precipitation, lightning, tornadoes, and hurricanes/ (long): erosion - Unequal heating of oceans and atmosphere at Earth’s poles vs. the equator creates density differences in water and air to create weather. -Immanuel Kant came up with the most widely accepted hypothesis of the origin of the solar system. ----- Early stage started with rotating spherical cloud of gas, ice, dust, and other solid debris. Gravity brought particles together, creating bigger particles which increased gravity. As matter drew inward and the size of the cloud decreased, the speed of rotation increased and the mass flattened into a disk. The greatest accumulation of matter occurred in the center of the disk, building today’s Sun. The two main constituents of the sun are lightweight elements of hydrogen and helium. As mass increased so did temperature and nuclear fusion began. The remaining matter in the rings continued to collide together to form planets. -The moon is thought to have been made from an impact from a mars sized body which knocked off a large amount of debris- it is thought that the moon is made predominantly from earth’s mantle. - Earth formed some 4.57 billion years ago. -The heat that transformed earth came from 1. Impact energy, 2. Decay of radioactive elements, 3. Gravitational energy, 4. Differentiation into layers. -Liquid iron moved to the center of earth through the strong gravitational force to create the core. The release of this massive amount of heat would have produced widespread melting likely to have caused low-density materials to rise and form: 1. A primitive crust of low-density rocks at the surface 2. Large oceans 3. A denser atmosphere. -The viscous movements of convection currents within the outer core are responsible for generating Earth’s magnetic field. -Earth’s layering can be described as 1. Separation based on differing densities or 2. Layers with different strengths. -The differences in strength and mechanical behavior between solid, “plastic,” and fluid states are partly
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This note was uploaded on 09/20/2008 for the course EAS 1220 taught by Professor Brown during the Fall '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 -Four primary energy sources for...

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