2/14/20171Food Toxicology II –PesticidesLecture 12Lecture Overview•Define the types and uses of pesticides.•List the advantages and disadvantages of pesticides.•Describe the effects of pesticides on human health.•Determine routes of food contamination.•Identify the agencies responsible for regulating pesticide use.•Explain the need for pesticide use and alternatives. Note on Lecture•Pesticides like many chemicals have environmental impacts.•Runoff contaminates water sources.•Large amounts of fuel involved in production•Etc.•The long-term effects of pesticide exposure and ongoing effects from discontinued products are still under investigation.•These are important issues but beyond the scope of this course.Pesticides•Pesticides = chemicals used to kill the following:•Insects (insecticides)•Weeds (herbicides)•Fungi (fungicides)•Other (rats, birds, etc)•For the purpose of our lecture we will focus on the potential ingestion of pesticides through food and water.Science Magazine produced a special edition on Pesticides. The figure above demonstrates that pesticides are a worldwide issue. -Science 16 August 2013 Vol. 341Advantages of Pesticides•Large scale food production.•Protection from insect-borne diseases.•Economic growth –cotton, flowers, etc.•Reducing/eliminating mosquito, ant, and cockroach populations.•Enserink, M. (2013) Science Vol.341 p 729Mosquitoes are not only annoying, they can also transmit diseases such as malaria. Do you think the mosquito that carries malaria lives in Florida?
2/14/20172Advantage –Large Scale Food Production•A growing population requires an ever increasing amount of food.•Large tracts of land are used for food and livestock feed.•The introduction of pests could quickly overwhelm large scale productions without the use of pesticides.•Note: Contrary to popular belief, pesticides are used in organic farming (no synthetic pesticides are allowed).Source: –IOWA Farmland AerialAdvantage –Protection from Insect-borne Disease•Bed nets treated with insecticides can prevent the spread of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria.•Act as a barrier, mosquito cannot bite. •The chart at right demonstrates the drop in deaths (USDA) and the picture shows children sleeping under a net (UNICEF). Advantage –Economic Growth •Outbreaks of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) occur periodically in Florida.•Larvae bury into more than 250 fruits, vegetables, and plants.•Malathion spraying from airplanes kills medflies.•Crops protected contribute $10 billion to the economy of Florida.Medfly larvae in a peach –UF Dept. of Entomology. Advantage –Eliminating PestsBedbugs –pestid.msu.eduTermites –Pioneer Pest Control, AustraliaRoaches –local restaurant.