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Notes: Ch. 4 (Cells)

Notes: Ch. 4 (Cells) - BIO NOTES Ch 4(Cell Structure and...

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dary, 2 lipid bilayers, cont. w/ ER when/how much DNA info is used (protect DNA from cytoplasmic reactions) x (1+ nucleoli embedded) are assembled from proteins/RNA A molec. w/ attached proteins DNA and proteins in a nucleus ance (ex: during cell division) BIO NOTES – Ch. 4 (Cell Structure and Function) I. What Is a Cell = smallest unit w/ properties of life (metabolism, homeostasis, growth, reproduction) eukaryotic = nucleus; prokaryotic = no nucleus all cells have: o plasma membrane = outer layer; separates metabolic activities from outside; H2O/CO2/O2 can cross freely o nucleus (euk.)/ nucleoid (prok.) = DNA-containing region o cytoplasm = water/ions/sugar/protein; semifluid b/wn plasma and DNA region contains components such as ribosomes (build proteins) lipid bilayer = structural foundation of membrane; hydrophobic tails face in, hydrophilic tails face out; phosphlipids are most abundant type; proteins embedded surface-to-volume ratio = limits cell size; (volume inc. w/ diam.³, surface area inc. w/ diam²) o cell expands in diam. during growth => Vol. inc. faster than SA o many cells are long/thin to help metabolism II. How We See Cells cell theory : 1) all organisms have one or more cells 2) cell is smallest unit of life 3) each new cell arises from another cell light microscope (visible light passes through specimen, curved glass magnifies image); cells appear featureless unless stained o fluorescence microscope = cell emits energy w/ laser beam focused on it (or light-emitting tracer attached) o wavelength limits power (structures smlr than ½ wavelength = too sml to scatter light waves) electron microscope
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