Notes: Mitosis

Notes: Mitosis - a. chromosomes lined up at equator b....

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interphase BIO NOTES – Mitosis --cell division, helps you grow; reproduction in some organisms --purpose of mitosis: to maintain chromosome # --most frequent cell division in lining of digestive system A. G1 –1 st growth phase a. synthesis and growth b. chromosomes remain as single DNA molecules c. enzymes for DNA replication, production of nucleotides B. S –DNA replication (each chromosome forms sister chromatids) C. G2 –synthesis of proteins for mitotic apparatus **karyotypes, uses… Human #: 2n = 46 (“double number”=diploid cell—2 of each chromosome type, doesn’t matter if they’re doubled or not; haploid=1 of each); Gametes (sex cells) to maintain chromosome #: duplicated, then separated A. Prophase a. early: duplicated (replicated) chromosomes condense b. late: microtubules assembled; 1 centriole pair toward each pole; nuclear envelope breaks up c. transition to metaphase: bi-polar spindle forms; microtubules attached to chromatids B. Metaphase
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Unformatted text preview: a. chromosomes lined up at equator b. centromeres (kinetochores) divide (chromosomes become single-stranded) c. what signals the end of metaphase? the replicated chromosomes separate (become single-stranded). C. transition to Anaphase a. sister chromatids pulled apart by shortening microtubules b. chromatid to chromosome, as soon as its divided c. How many chromosomes? 8 D. Anaphase a. chromosomes move toward poles b. cytokinesis begins (signals end of anaphase) E. Telophase a. cleavage furrow b. chromosomes decondense c. 2 nuclear membranes form around single-stranded chromosomes ** Cytokinesis 2 mechanisms: cell plate formation in plants, cleavage in animals ** Tumors : sometimes checkpoint gene mutates and control over cell division is lost uncontrollable division forms abnormal mass = tumor cancer is genetic bc it involves mutation of genes chemotherapy stops cell divison...
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Notes: Mitosis - a. chromosomes lined up at equator b....

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