chem notes 4- - Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution...

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Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution Aqueous Solution Properties Solution : a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances Includes two components: Solvent: substance in greater quantity Solute: substance in smaller quantity Solution= solute + solvent Aqueous Solution (aq): dissolved in water Solvent : water Solute : Ionic compounds, molecular compounds (metal + nonmetal) (all nonmetal) When ionic compounds dissolve in water: a. Compounds dissociates into positive and negative ions b. Ions are surrounded by water molecules (solvation) i. This process is called dissociation resulting aqueous solution containing ions conducts electricity (electrolytes) Electrolyte s: substance that form ions when dissolved in water Strong electrolytes : completely as ions, high conductivity Ionic compounds (NaCl) Strong acids, strong bases NaCl (aq) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) 2 ions Na 3 (PO 4 ) (aq) 3Na + (aq) + PO 4 3- (aq) 4 ions Weak Electrolytes : small fraction in the form of ions, low conductivity Weak acid, Weak bases Nonelectrolytes : does not form ions when dissolved, no conductivity Molecular Compounds (C 12 H 22 O 11 ) Acids and Bases Acids : Substance that produces H + ion (proton) HCl (aq) H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Can form different number of protons H 2 SO 4 2H + (diprotic) H 3 PO 4 3H + (triprotic) HC 2 H 3 O 2 1H + Not all the H atoms in a molecule are acidic CH 3 COOH In organic acids (made of C&H), H at the end breaks Bases : Substance that produces a hydroxide (OH - ) ion They accept proton NaOH (aq) Na + (aq) + OH - (aq)
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Strong Acids and Bases
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