chem notes 1-3 - Chapter 1 Matter and Measurement Chemistry...

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Chapter 1 Matter and Measurement Chemistry: the study of matter and the changes it undergoes Matter: anything that has mass and takes up space o Property: any characteristic that allows us to recognize a particular types of matter and to distinguish it from the other types Atoms: are the building blocks of matter Molecules: two or more atoms are joined in specific shapes Classification of Matter Matter is classified in two ways: o Physical state Gas, Liquid, Solid o Composition Pure substance (elements, compounds) Mixtures States of Matter o Gas: No fixed volume of shape Uniformly fills its container Particles far apart o Liquid: Has a distinct volume Particles close together o Solid: Fixed shaped, fixed volume Cannot be compressed Ordered arrangement of particles Composition of Matter Pure Substances: (a substance) have distinct properties and composition does not vary from sample to sample All Substances are either: 1. Elements: are made of same kind of atom and cannot be decomposed into simpler substance a. 118 elements known listed on Periodic Table b. Symbols of an element consist of one of two letters, first letter capitalized c. Elements can exist as molecules (O 2 , N 2 ) 2. Compounds: is made of two or more different kinds of elements (ex. H 2 O) a. Compounds can be decomposed into elements Mixtures: combinations of two or more substances Each substance keeps its chemical identity Types of Mixture:
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a. Heterogeneous mixtures: do not have the same composition, properties, and appearance throughout the mixture Such as rocks, sand b. Homogeneous mixtures: uniform appearance and composition throughout the mixture Also called solutions Such as air, salt, or sugar in water Properties of Matter Physical Properties: must be observed without changing a compound of element into another compound or element o Such as boiling point, density, mass, volume Chemical Properties: can only be observed when a compound or element is changed into another compound or element o Such as flammability, reactivity with acid Intensive Properties: Independent of the amount of the matter that is present o Such as density, boiling point, color Extensive Properties: depends on the amount of matter present o Such as mass, volume Physical and Chemical Changes Physical Changes: changes in matter that changes appearance but not composition of a substance o Identity remains the same o Such as changes of state, temperature Chemical Changes: changes that result in new substances o Such as combustion, oxidation, decomposition Measurements in Chemistry Measurements always consist of two parts: Number: o Exact or inexact o Significant figure o Scientific notation Unit: o Metric system o Dimensional analysis Uncertainty in Measurements Different measuring devices have different degrees of accuracy All measured numbers have some degree of inaccuracy Two kinds of numbers are encountered in science: 1. Exact numbers: values are known exactly 2.
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