Jurnal of Dispersant - Effects of pH on oil dispersant...

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Effects of pH on oil dispersant toxicity in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei 1 M. Arif Asadi., 2 Ahmad Didin K. 1 Laboratory of Marine Science, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, University of Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia. 2 Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, University of Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia Abstract. Introductions The drilling rig Deepwater Horizon exploded in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico in April 2010, killing 11 people and causing crude oil to flow from the Macondo well at 1500 m depth (National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling, 2011). Marine oil spills following accidents during crude oil transportation are infrequent, the environmental impact when accidents do occur is disastrous due to the acute and chronic adverse effects to not only the offshore but also the coastal ecosystem (Bejarano et al., 2006a; Lyons et al., 2011). The use of dispersants is an oil spill response technique which increases the natural potential for removing spilled oil from the sea surface. Dispersants are a group of chemicals spray or apply to oil slicks to accelerate the dispersion of oil into the water column. They can’t remove oil from the water, but are intended to limit the amount of oil forming a slick on the water surface or shoreline by driving that oil into a dissolved phase. It is, however important to note that most of the dispersants are very toxic on their own against organisms and in some cases, enhance the toxicity of spilled crude oil to exposed organism when deployed or utilized to control oil spills (Otitoloju, 2005). Because dispersant can be deployed from aircraft it has a promising potential in remote and icy high Arctic areas where mechanical recovery of spilled oil is almost impossible. However, pelagic organisms in the water column will be exposed to the components in the dispersed oil and the dispersant. It is therefore, very important to study the potential toxic effect of realistic concentrations of dispersed oil and dispersant on pelagic organisms to be able to minimize the ecological impact of an oil spill (Nørregaard et al., 2015). Since 1960s, the research on the aquatic toxicology of oil spill dispersants started to be considerable. Past studies have evaluated the acute toxicity of dispersants (Perkins et al., 1973; Thompson & Wu, 1981). More recent studies have taken into consideration the toxicity of the petroleum-dispersant interaction (Epstein et al., 2000; Long & Holdway, 2002; Lin et al., 2009). Some studies show that oil alone has less toxicity than dispersant and combination of oil and dispersant (Milinkovitch et al., 2011; Shafir et al., 2007) and some studies show that oil alone is more toxic than dispersant and mixture of oil and dispersant (Otitoloju, 2005; Yijun et al., 2010). The aim of this research was to determine acute toxicity on Litopenaeus vannamei .
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