The testicles (also called testes) are part of the male reproductive system. The testicles are two oval organs about the size of large olives. They are located inside the scrotum, the loose sac of skin that hangs behind the penis. The testicles make the male hormones, including testosterone, and produce sperm, the male reproductive cells. Disorders of the testes can lead to serious complications, including hormonal imbalances , sexual dysfunction and infertility . What disorders affect the testes? Some of the more common disorders that affect the testes include the following: Related Institutes & Services Glickman Urological & Kidney Institute The Glickman Urological & Kidney Institute offers innovative treatments in urology and nephrology, including minimally invasive, scarless options for urologic procedures and medical management of kidney disease. Testicular trauma Because the testes are located within the scrotum, which hangs outside of the body, they do not have the protection of muscles and bones. This makes it easier for the testes to be struck, hit, kicked or crushed, which occurs most often during contact sports. Males can protect their testicles by wearing athletic cups during sports. Trauma to the testes can cause severe pain, bruising and/or swelling. In most cases, the testes—which are made of a spongy material—can absorb the shock of an injury without serious damage. A rare type of testicular trauma, called testicular rupture, occurs when the testicle receives a direct blow or is
squeezed against the hard surface of the pelvis. This injury can cause blood to leak into the scrotum. In severe cases, surgery to repair the rupture—and thus save the testicle—may be necessary. Testicular torsion Within the scrotum, the testicles are secured at one end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Sometimes, this cord gets twisted cutting off the testicle's blood supply. Symptoms of testicular torsion include sudden and severe pain, enlargement of the affected testicle, tenderness, and swelling. This disorder, which occurs most often in young males between the ages of 12 and 18, can result from an injury to the testicles or from strenuous activity. It also can occur for no apparent reason.
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- Fall '11
- Andrology, testicular cancer, Testicle, Testicular torsion, testicles