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Unformatted text preview: 51 CHAPTER 4 TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes 10 . Only statement b is true. A concentrated solution can also contain a nonelectrolyte dissolved in water, for example, concentrated sugar water. Acids are either strong or weak electrolytes. Some ionic compounds are not soluble in water, so they are not labeled as a specific type of electrolyte. 11. a. Polarity is a term applied to covalent compounds. Polar covalent compounds have an uneBual sharing of electrons in bonds that results in uneBual charge distribution in the overall molecule. Polar molecules have a partial negative end and a partial positive end. These are not full charges as in ionic compounds but are charges much smaller in magnitude. Water is a polar molecule and dissolves other polar solutes readily. The oxygen end of water (the partial negative end of the polar water molecule) aligns with the partial positive end of the polar solute, whereas the hydrogens of water (the partial positive end of the polar water molecule) align with the partial negative end of the solute. These opposite charge attractions stabilize polar solutes in water. This process is called hydration. Nonpolar solutes do not have permanent partial negative and partial positive endsI nonpolar solutes are not stabilized in water and do not dissolve. b. KF is a soluble ionic compound, so it is a strong electrolyte. KF(aB) actually exists as separate hydrated K + ions and hydrated F ! ions in solution. C 6 12 O 6 is a polar covalent molecule that is a nonelectrolyte. C 6 12 O 6 is hydrated as described in part a. c. RbCl is a soluble ionic compound, so it exists as separate hydrated Rb + ions and hydrated Cl ! ions in solution. AgCl is an insoluble ionic compound so the ions stay together in solution and fall to the bottom of the container as a precipitate. d. NO 3 is a strong acid and exists as separate hydrated + ions and hydrated NO 3 ! ions in solution. CO is a polar covalent molecule and is hydrated as explained in part a. 12. MgSO 4 (s) " Mg 2+ (aB) + SO 4 2 ! (aB)I N 4 NO 3 (s) " N 4 + (aB) + NO 3 ! (aB) 13. a. a(NO 3 ) 2 (aB) " a 2+ (aB) + 2 NO 3 ! (aB)I picture iv represents the a 2+ and NO 3 ! ions present in a(NO 3 ) 2 (aB). b. NaCl(aB) " Na + (aB) + Cl ! (aB)I picture ii represents NaCl(aB). 52 COAPTER 4 SoLUTIoN SToICOIoMETRY c. K 2 Co 3 (aB) " 2 K + (aB) + Co 3 2 ! (aB)i pcture represents K 2 Co 3 (aB). d. MgSo 4 (aB) " Mg 2+ (aB) + So 4 2 ! (aB)i pcture represents MgSo 4 (aB). Solution Concentration: Molarity 14. 75.0 mL \ g 1 . 46 ml 1 mL g 79 . # ^ 1.3 ml C 2 O 5 oOi mlarty ^ L 250 . ml 3 . 1 ^ 5.2 ! C 2 O 5 oO 15. a. 2.00 L ml NaoO g 00 . 40 L NaoO ml 250 ....
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This note was uploaded on 09/21/2008 for the course CHEM 21 taught by Professor Mukundan during the Fall '08 term at Duke.
- Fall '08