NST10_Spr08_Midterm3Review[1] - MIDTERM 3 REVIEW Function...

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MIDTERM 3 REVIEW Function mechanism Symptoms of deficiency Food sources toxicity notes Vitamin D Promotes Ca absorption Calcitriol- hormone produced to absorb Ca Rickets, osteomalacia sunshine Ca in soft tissue, cant function Maintain adequate Ca absorption in bone Synthesize calcitriol Vitamin K Clots blood Impaired blood clotting, easy bleeding Green veggies Warfarin (retards blood clotting) Co-factor= enzymes activate proteins by enabling them to bind Ca Vitamin E Antioxidant Crohn's disease-bowel, diarrhea Veg oil, veggie, nuts Explain why vitamin D is called the sunshine vitamin. Vit D is absorbed from the sun, sunlight triggers vit D synthesis, calcitrol hormone produced Explain why it is important that plasma calcium maintains in a narrow range. Essential for life, Ca controls bone structure and neurological functions. Too little: hypocalcemia tetany, involuntary contractions/seisures. Too much: hypercalmacia, put Ca in soft tissue, kidney, etc cannot function. What are the two organs where vitamin D3 are converted to its functional form ? Liver, kidney= calcitriol Define Osteomalacia and Osteoporosis. Osteomalacia: correctable, bone matrix is normal, but not Calcified osteoporosis: both matrix and Ca is reduced, brittle bones What is energy balance and why is it important? Energy in + energy out = weight, too much=gain weigh, too little=lose weight What are the three main sources of energy used by the body (macronutrients)? What is the calorie content of each? Protein 4, carb 4, fat 9. List 4 ways that the body uses energy basal metabolism, thermic effect of food, physical activity, thermogenesis (non-exercise activity) What is the formula used to predict metabolic rate? M= 70.5W^.75
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How do the feelings of hunger, appetite, satiety differ? Hunger: lack of food. Appetite: integrated response to food. Satiety: feeling of fullness How is energy intake (eating) controlled by the body? Hormones produced by hypothalamus: controls water bal, temp, appetite 70% of total energy use by body depends on ___basal metabolism________. What are the 6 factors that affect BMR? • Age, Growth • Height, % lean tissue • Fasting, starvation, malnutrition • Fever • Hormones: thyroxin • Sleep What is the thermic effect of food? Energy used for digestion (10%) Define the following terms: Pavlov: The processes of nutrient assimilation is initiated before food enters the mouth by nerves, psychic secretion Bayliss and Starling: Nutrient assimilation requires the release of hormones, secretin Cephalic response : response that occurs as soon as food is smelled. Initiated by nerves, scent react with receptors, nervous system of intestine to initiate secretion, pancreas=insulin. What are the messengers between brain and gut?
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This note was uploaded on 09/22/2008 for the course NST 10 taught by Professor Amy during the Spring '08 term at Berkeley.

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NST10_Spr08_Midterm3Review[1] - MIDTERM 3 REVIEW Function...

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