chapter2 - Chapter Two Understanding Human Sexuality:...

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1 Chapter Two Understanding Human Sexuality: Theory and Research Theory What is a Theory? Research What is research?
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2 Theories About Human Sexuality Psychological Biological Evolutionary Sociological Feminist Queer Most theorists use multiple perspectives Psychological Theories Psychoanalytic Theory Behavioral Theory Social Learning Theory Cognitive Theory Humanistic Theory Psychoanalytic Theory Freud (1856-1939) Most influential psychological theory of sexuality
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3 Psychoanalysis: Drives Two drives: Libido life or sexual Thanatos death Two divisions psychic apparatus: Three systems conscious, preconscious, unconscious Three instances id, ego, superego Psychic System Repression Ideas Affections Idea Affection Disguised Dynamic Conscious Unconscious Preconscious Psychic Instances Id seeks immediate satisfaction Ego operates in reality; balances id and superego Superego values & restrictions; conscience Psychoanalysis required if ego does not balance id and superego Psychoanalysis brings unconscious thoughts into consciousness
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4 Psychoanalytic: Psychosexual Development Basic psychic structure formed within the first five years of life Stages of development Corresponding erogenous zones where libidinal energy is directed Unsuccessful progression through each stage could result in fixation Fixation occurs when libidinal energy is caught in that stage s zone Sexuality Femininity/Masculinity independent from biological gender Sexuality libidinal energy investing external objects Psychological: Behavioral Theory Operant conditioning (Skinner) reinforcement punishment Only study overt behavior; ignore internal states Behavior modification change unwanted behavior
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5 Social Learning Theory Bandura Basis in operant conditioning Also consider internal events in affecting behavior Identification and imitation of same-sex parent in development of our gender identity Peer pressure influence on our sexuality Cognitive Theory Individual differences in processing
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chapter2 - Chapter Two Understanding Human Sexuality:...

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