Unformatted text preview: Gov 312L U.S.-Latin American Relations
Week 4 The History of U.S. Latin American Relations pre 1945 1 exam
st Sept. 22 (next Monday) 1 essay and 15 multiple choice questions Theories/Actors/Institutions/Pre1945 history of relations Review session to be announced The Struggle of the European Powers for Latin America 1. 2. 3. The imperial struggle corresponded to expectations of Realist theory Balance of Power principle led to shifting coalitions. Sovereignty of existing states. The state was the main actor. Imperial expansion meant that Latin America was a battleground. The Rationale for Imperialism TO GAIN ECONOMIC BENEFITS. TO GAIN POLITICAL AND MILITARY BENEFITS. RELIGIOUS MISSION (SECONDARY GOAL) CIVILIZING MISSION (SECONDARY GOAL) Forms of Imperialism CONQUEST AND INCORPORATION SUBJUGATION AND COLONIZATION CREATION OF SPHERES OF INFLUENCE The Shifting Balance of Power Spain and Portugal divide up the region: Treaty of Tordesillas Protestant countries move into the region England gains the upper hand Colonization of North America and the Caribbean England controls the slave trade U.S. Policy toward Latin America after the American Revolution An official policy of neutrality But private citizens armed and supported the rebels England gradually came to support the rebels. The U.S. began to seek to establish its own hegemony in the region. The Monroe Doctrine The Americas "are henceforth not to be considered as subject for future colonization by any European power" Directed mostly at Russian encroachment in the NW U.S. European nations scorn the idea Makes Latin America nervous The Monroe Doctrine had little immediate effect U.S. Intervention in Latin America in the 19th Century 1. 2. Two forms of intervention: Establishment of spheres of influence. Frequent interference in domestic affairs. Acquisition and absorption. But the U.S. had to be careful not to antagonize the British. U.S. Annexation of Territory The Louisiana Purchase of 1803 The annexation of West Florida Texan independence (1837) Gadsden Purchase (1853) The Panama Canal The Adamsde Onis Treaty of 1809 The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The Spanish American War Rising U.S. Influence Increased military strength Growing trade and investment Britain and other European countries still dominated in South America Relations between Britain and the United States in the region Initial conflicts A boundary dispute in Venezuela (1895 96) Secretary of State Olney's controversial declaration Growing British deference to the U.S. The British give the U.S. the sole right to construct a canal Changing U.S. Policy in the Region 1. 2. 3. Why the U.S. shifted from the acquisition of territory to the creation of a sphere of influence: Increasing worldwide focus on commercial ties Imperialism was expensive Racist views caused the U.S. to oppose incorporation of nonAnglos Motivations for Military Intervention Protection of U.S. economic interests. Dollar Diplomacy. Assertion of geopolitical hegemony. Protection of the Panama Canal The Process of Military Intervention 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The U.S. would: Depose existing rulers Install a new government Supervise new elections Encouraged U.S. banks to assume the debts of LA countries Helped U.S. companies collect debts. U.S. Policy toward Latin America in the early 20th Century The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine William Howard Taft and Dollar Diplomacy Woodrow Wilson: Lofty Rhetoric and Continued Intervention Intervention in Various Latin American Countries 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Between 1898 and 1934, the U.S. invaded Latin America 30 times: Dominican Republic Cuba Nicaragua Haiti Mexico THE USE OF DEMOCRATIC RHETORIC DEMOCRATIC RHETORIC VS. JINGOISM THE AUDIENCE FOR DEMOCRATIC RHETORIC THE FAILURE TO SPREAD DEMOCRACY CHANGING U.S. POLICIES IN THE 1920S AND 1930S WITHDRAWING TROOPS REDUCING MILITARY INTERVENTION AND RESPECTING SOVEREIGNTY REPUDIATING THE ROOSEVELT COROLLARY BUT MILITARY INTERVENTION DID NOT END ENTIRELY SETTLING BORDER DISPUTES EMPHASIZING ECONOMIC TIES FDR'S GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY A POLICY OF NONINTERVENTION USING ECONOMIC AND DIPLOMATIC LEVERAGE TO ACHIEVE AIMS EXPANDING ECONOMIC LINKS THE ORIGINS OF THE GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY ...
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- Spring '07