4. S2 Characterization of Taste Reception

4. S2 Characterization of Taste Reception - Laboratory Oral...

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Laboratory Oral Function and Science - Oral Physiology Hiroshima University 2017 S2 : CHARACTERIZATION OF TASTE RECEPTION Hanif, Hilmy I., Kitagawa, Mitinori C150196; Faculty of Dentistry Hiroshima University Abstraction Human taste receptor has complex function which to support the daily activity specially to digest the daily nutrient. While we consume, taste as the first brain recognition of the nutrient gives the specific activation on every component we consume. We can taste many thing which mainly divided into 5 basic tastant, sweet, salt, sour, bitter and umami. On this experiment we would like to observe how the molecular mechanism change, the activation of 4 basic tastant which under the specific condition; temperature, preceding or combining tastant, and gene observation. Sugar and bitter that having a similarity on receptor of T1R; T2R of G-coupled receptor is determined the activation on higher temperature with the lower concentration level. Sour of PKDL as ion channel has no slight change on temperature. While Salt through ENaC showing specialty on temperature. Preceding experiment also shown that ENaC gives the activation to bitterness. The genetic information of taste also can predict how activate the tastant through the protein it made. The AVI of TAS2R38 gene for Bitter taste, marked as the non taster of bitterness. Keyword: sweet, salt, sour, bitter, temperature, preceding tastant, AVI, PAV, TAS2R38 gene 1. Introduction The oral function science laboratory of Physiology section, one sub-theme of the Physiology branch of Visualization laboratory practice is to understand the threshold of basic taste and its differences of taste sensitivity. Measuring through the given samples and to detect which level of solution with undergoes of several conditions such as temperatures. The sub-theme experiment is done in 4 days of partner working and divided the specific objective on each day. This experiment also, to get the assessment of the effect of the temperature of tastants on taste threshold and the changes in taste threshold by a mix of different taste substances. From these results, students are discussing the taste sensitivities that may changed in the context of molecular and cellular mechanism. Observation is continued with how genetic factors give the differences on taste sensitivity among the individuals. This experiment will focus on a gene of TAS2R38, which encodes a bitter taste receptor for phenylthiocarbamide(PTC). By comparing the result of physiological analysis of bitter taste reception and genetic analysis of TAS2R38, students are asked to give the explanation of molecular mechanism underlying the bitter sensitivity. PTC is one of bitter substances, and it is well known that the bitter taste threshold is different among individuals. One who has a low sensitivity for PTC is called PTC taste blindness, and this phenotype is known to be regulated by a genomic locus and transmitted as autosomal recessive, suggesting the existence of a gene relevant to taste reception of PTC. In recent studies, it has been
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