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2. C2 TASTE AND ORAL SENSATION - Hilmy Irsyadi Hanif...

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Hilmy Irsyadi Hanif C150196 [email protected] C3 TASTE AND ORAL SENSATION Laboratory of Oral Function Sciences (Oral Physiology Session) 1. Measurement of taste sensitivity 2. Measurement of electrogustometric taste threshold 3. Measurement of topognosis of tooth 1. MEASUREMENT OF TASTE SENSITIVITY 1.1 Overview In mammals including humans, it is generally thought that various tastes for foods are composed of combinations of five basic taste sensations; sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami. These stimuli of taste occur at taste buds distributing to the surface of tongue , soft palate and larynx. The surface of tongue contains three types of tissue structure; fungiform papillae (in anterior side), foliate papillae (in lateral side), and circumvallate papillae (in posterior side). A taste bud is composed of 50-150 cells, which include taste receptor-expressing cells (taste cells), supporting cells and proliferative basal cells. It is generally assumed that each receptor expressed in taste cells is activated by its ligand molecule tastants, and the interaction induces an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, evoked action potential and a release of several neurotransmitters. Gustatory nerve fibers connected to taste cells transmit the signals to the nucleus of solitary tract in medulla via four neural pathways; from fungiform papillae to chorda tymphani nerve, from foliate and circumvallate papillae to glossopharyngeal nerve, from soft palate region to greater petrosal nerve, from larynx region to vagus nerve, respectively. The gustatory signals are transmitter to central nervous system in which pleasant/ unpleasant emotion is evoked and taste recognition (discrimination of taste quality and intensity) occurs. In this frame, we examine taste sensitivity by measuring the threshold of each basic taste with whole-mouth test and filter paper disc test. The advantage of these Laboratory of Oral Function Sciences-Biochemistry, Physiology, and Pharmacology Oral Physiology: C2 Taste and Oral Sensation Faculty Of Dentistry - Hiroshima University 2017
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Hilmy Irsyadi Hanif C150196 [email protected] test is to determine the threshold quantitatively and qualitatively. Filter paper disc test is routinely used for diagnosis of disorders of taste. 1.2 Aim Examine taste sensitivity by measuring the threshold of each basic taste with whole mouth test and filter paper disc test quantitatively and qualitatively. 1.3 Materials Forceps, a dropper, taste judgement board, circle filter paper (5 mm diameter), and a series of diluted tastant solutions as shown below. % (w/v) concentration (One % (w/v) means that there is 1 g of solute per 100 ml of solution) Taste Solute No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Sweet Sugar 0,002 4 0,010 0,039 0,16 0,63 2,5 10 40 Salty Salt 0,001 0,005 0,020 0,078 0,31 1,25 5 20 Sour Citric Acid 0,001 0,004 0,016 0,063 0,25 1 4 16 Bitter Caffeine 0,006 0,013 0,025 0,05 0,1 0,2 0,4 0,8 1.4 Methods Make a pair, and one person (a tester) examine another person (a subject), and then change the role each other by using 2 kind of methods, whole-mouth test and filter-paper-disc test. The tester should choose a taste randomly, and measure the following thresholds from a lower concentration.
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