Oct15_Effective_Career_Planning_Intro_Ch

Oct15_Effective_Career_Planning_Intro_Ch - lNlRUDUC'l‘lON...

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Unformatted text preview: lNlRUDUC'l‘lON Effective Career Planning . “Choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life.” ~Confiacz'us onfucius‘ statement is easier said than done. Some people re~ C port feeling unfulfilled at work, or are dissatisfied with their career choices, so much so that they dream of retirement as the time in their lives when they will be able to do what they really want. Would you like to be happy at work? You have seen your parents, grandparents, or guardians come home from their respective jobs and express their feelings about their work. If they have not directly spoken to you about what they do all day you may have assumed a few things: either they are Very fulfilled with their work and talk very positively about their experiences or they spend too much time at work or must not enjoy what they do much if they complain and seem dissatisfied. Being happy at one’s work requires finding saris» faction with what that vocation entails. According to Super (1996), “Work satisfactions and life satisfactions depend on the extent to which the individual finds adequate outlets for abilities, interests, personality traits, and values.” This textbook is dedicated to the project of helping you find a voca— tion that will be an accurate portrait of your deepest interests, a ca— reer that challenges you in important ways and acts as a forum for personal expression. There are many difficult questions that you might be facing now: What will I major in? What is my plan now that I’m in college? What will I do with my major? Will I be ful« filled in my career? Will I make enough money? Will I be happy? As you talk with fellow students, the questions might seem to take on an added urgency. Does everyone in your dorm seem to have a plan for his/her future? Do‘you feel as if you have to make some- thing up when someone asks you so you don’t feel left out? It’s not a good feeling to not know what your next step will be. We under— stand that feeling and would like to help you chart your path toward your future. We also want.you to know that these feelings are nor» trial. We hope that through the exercises in this book'you will come to realize that you have some time and some important steps to take in order to make an informed decision about your future. Charting Your Career Path oeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeoeeeeeeeeeeenoseeeeeaeeeeeeeeeeeoeeeeeee GB%£‘-¢3@[email protected]@$§§fi1 What It Can Mean to Your Success “Every man’s work . . . is always a portrait of himself.” m—Butler To create good plans, first you must understand why it is important to plan, where to begin and what is involved in the planningi.-Career develop~ .. merit begins and ends with you and it is a lifelong, cyclical process. The stages of career development will repeat themselves as you find yourself in the questioning stages of new beginnings from time to time in life. Career Planning Stages The following is an outline of the Career Develop» ment Stages by Donald Super, one of the foremost career theorists, and some additional information (in italics) to help you implement the stages throughout your college career: (Super, 1996) Stage One: Growth Develop physically and intellectually. Observe and learn from others around you. Begin to see yourself as an individual with tal~ rents and skills (selficoncept). Stage Two: Exploration Write down a list of potential careers and man jors. Assess and articulate your personal interests, values, and skills (with adviso rs, professors and career counselors). Seek ways to build skills in areas that need to be developed. 1 Acquire an entry-level position in your chosen field. Stage Three: Establishment Create a sense of personal satisfaction in your vocation { include components that sarisfiz your personal growth—revisit values). Grow into your position, move up, and accept extra responsibilities. Stage Four: Maintenance Continue to grow in your position by accepting additional responsibilities and challenges. Consider difierent careers that fit your needs / self—concept. Stage Five: Disengagement Retire. Envision life after work and develop a plan (re~ evaluate your needs with a career consultant). Volunteer in areas that interest you. Participate in activities that give you energy. Remember, you may find yourself re—evaluating these stages throughout your life. Career Planning Discoverdecision—making styles and implement and Its Importance efiective decisions (examine your own style and determine the most effective style for career planning). Take courses that relate to your interests. Explore careers through part-time work, intern~ ships, and research. Research the required skills and training for your potential career. 1' 'ReCOgnizefields'niost closely related to your inL terests, values, and skills and add them to your list. Why is career planning important? Think about all the questions you have about your future. Your fu» ture encompasses your work, your personal life, your spiritual self, your physical self, and your self~ concept. Who are you? Self—concept is an aware- ness of: how you View yourself, how others View you, what you expect to be (your dreams and ide~ 313), and an awareness of your overall worth. Effective career planning must and should begin with iéfiavriareness of your own self—concept: your interests, abilities, personality, weaknesses, rela— tionships, dreams, goals, influences, etc. Through— ~m._. Heymuwmmr‘M.W-meqw—flmw out this book, you will have the opportunity to clarify your selfwconcept through a variety of ex— ercises and to apply this self information to a range of career options that are available to you. What did you dream of becoming when you were a child? Who or what were your influences? Other people’s views of you may have affected your vo— cational self-concept. Our first vocational impres— sions often come from people we admire as children like our first-grade teachers, “super he- roes,” doctors, dads, moms, uncles, aunts, charac— ters in movies, etc. According to Dr. Super, these feelings may have had an influence in our first im- pressions of careers or dreams we could potentially pursue. If your parents, teachers, siblings, and friends gave you the idea that things were possible for you, you might have felt empowered to pursue certain things. On the flip side, if these valued people in your life discouraged you or if you tried and failed, you might have been discouraged in your pursuits and began to change your vocational self-concept. ‘ Through your own experiences and as you better understand your own skills, interests and prefer~ ences, the first impressions for careers to pursue begin to change. In your mind, you are practicing career development. You are assessing your own abilities, and preferences and then matching them to careers that capture your attention. Consider J ames’s Story When James was four years old, he wanted to grow up and become a basketball player. His parents encouraged him throughout his elementary school years by enrolling him in basketball little leagues, attending his basketball games and providing sup- port and verbal encouragement. He was smart and excelled at most subjects throughout school years. Basketball was a major part of his life and James’s first choice for a career. Because of the positive influence of his uncle John, James had also considered becoming a lawyer. James’s parents always spoke with such a high re»- gard for Uncle John. He remembers seeing his Charting Your Career Path uncle from time to time, and he always had excit— ing stories about his job and seemed very self-con- fident. When he thought of his uncle John, the words “powerful and influential” came to mind. At'the' age‘of 16, James-realized that he washer skilled enough to play in the NBA. He had made it onto the junior varsity team but didn’t make it onto the varsity team. His skills were not quite at the level that he needed to be at and his coach had a candid conversation with James about his poten— tial as a professional athlete. It was becoming clear to James that his dream of becoming a professional basketball player was not realistic and that he needed to rethink his career dreams. For James, the process of career development was just begin- ning. Now he would need to begin exploring other options and begin carefully considering his future. A few trips to the career counselor in his high school would help James begin a new plan of action. On page 6 is an exercise to help you as you begin to search and understand your own self-concept. PERSONAL CAREER ESSAY After learning about the stages of career development, and how you begin to'identify with careers as a child and throughout your adolescence, you may want to jot down some notes as to how you have developed your ideas for careers. The following exercise will allow you to track your career path. At what age did you begin to dream about becoming a doctor, baseball player, chemist, veterinarian, lawyer, writer, etc.? Reflect on past experiences as a child, adolescent, adult, with role models, part—time work, volun~ teer work, hobbies, high school activities (clubs, athletics, student government), and identify those experiences that have helped you learn about your interests and have given you a picture Of what you may want to pursue as a career. The paper should be one to two pages and double—Spaced. Use the following questions to assist you in writing your vocational autobiography: - What were some of your first visions of careers that you would pursue? - Have there been any significant experiences in your life that have influenced your chosen ca- reer/rnajor interests (ex. parents, teachers, mentors, coaches, etc)? - Have your cultural background, socioeconomic status, gender or religious beliefs had any in- fluence in your thoughts about careers or majors? - Who are your heroes? ° What do you naturally do well? - What classes fascinate and absorb you? ' 'What courses have you taken that you did not enjoy? ° When you daydream, what do you see yourself doing? - What is your definition of success? 0 What motivates you? - What have been your most important learning experiences? ' What is the most gratifying thing that you have ever done? The most dissatisfying? 0 What do you think you will need in a job to make you happy? ' What areas about your self would you like to improve? ' What are some of your biggest fears about choosing a major or career? a ra:u—:.«galadwinw'hulpskwdmfiwmfiflfiu‘ New Trends Affect Job Choices Twenty years-Iago your parents may have studied for one particular profession. They may have started teaching, joined the armed forces or climbed the company ladders through hard work and pro“ motions, and stayed in those professions until rem tirement. Work trends are changing. According to the Labor Department statistics (Wall Street err~ nal, Careers Section, 1995), the average person will work for more than 10— 12 employers, have 3—5 dif— ferent careers and change jobs at leaSt every 4—5 years. These statistics can be an overwhelming on one hand, but, on the other, it can mean variety, change and challenge throughout your work life. Because of this new trend, you must begin to think about your plans earlier and more thoroughly. Be— ginning to think about your career development as early as your freshman or sophomore year in col— lege is worthwhile and smart. So as you begin to plan for your college career you should plan as if you are going on a long and adventurous journey. Finding Your Way Think of career planning as a kind of search through a huge array of sometimes confusing choices. Imagine you are at a large, mega-mall. You are in search of a particular store. f’erhaps it is a specialty store. As you enter the mall, there are directories in almost every corner or hall entrance. The first thing you do is orient yourself. “You are here,” the map asserts helpfully. Next, you want to find the name of the store you are looking to find, and then you want to chart your course from where you are located to where you want to go. This book will take you through a similar map- ping process. As mentioned earlier, career devel- opment is a life—long process and it begins with awareness. Understanding who and where you are, your likes and dislikes (interests); determining what ‘ skills you have, need and want to develop, what work values you have, and what personality pref~ erences you have, is essential information that you Charting Your Career Path must gather as you make informed decisions re— garding your career or major choice. Information, Decisions and Planning Information gathering, another important piece of the Career Exploration Process, can entail a lot of work. The more information you gather, the better informed you will be as you begin to narrow down your options. Narrowing your options is essential. This may be difficult for those of you who like to keep all of your Options open. If you are one of these people, pay close attention to the guidance in the decisionwmaking chapter and keep in con— tact with your career counselor at your university or college. You can be skilled at many things, but you will want to find the best fit to include all of your needs (interests, values, skills, personality preferences), so that you are satisfied with your career choices. The last step of the Career Exploration Processis to develop a plan of action. You will need to be motivated. The key to motivation is to set goals. In Section III of this book, “Taking Action: How can you move forward 17,” you will learn the importance of making decisions, setting goals, and creating an action plan for your future. We are pleased to help you on this exciting and adventurous journey and are committed to help: ing you setup a plan that will lead you to find ‘ " answers to a dizzying array of questions about your future. After completing this book and making some trips to research and discuss your plans with a career counselor, you will find that you have started on the road to effective career planning. Get ready to learn about yourself and to explore the opportunities that await you! iUHiversity Career Development Center n .,; n‘ .t a} f}. a W. I CHAPTER Clarifying and Assessing Your Values Your values are the sets of beliefs, attitudes, and commitments that underlie your decisionmrnaking process; values are the re- flection of how you create meaning in life. You are continually in the process of forming and re~evaluating your values based on knowlv edge and prior experiences, as well as input from parents, friends, organizations, education, etc. Typically, you are happiest when your actions match your values. Unfortunately, because value systems are complex, you“ frequently need to create a hierarchy of your val— ues to make good decisions. Sound confusing? You go through this process multiple times every day. For example, let’s say your friends want you to go to a concert to-— night, but you hate an exam early tomorrow morning and you haven’t studied yet. You value their friendship, but you also value achieve" ment and getting good grades. How do you solve this? Most likely, you create a solution that allows you to stay true to your values (stay in studying tonight but go out with those friends tomorrow night). In order to make this decision, you had to weigh the results of each action against your values and decide which value was more impor— tant in the short—term (getting good grades or maintaining social connections). How do you know what you value? One clue to identifying your values is to assess how you spend your time, energy, and money. The following questions will help you in identifying your values: 1. Of your accomplishments, which one are you most proud? Why? 2. What would you most: like to accomplish before you die? 3. If you could change one thing about yourself, what would it be? 4. If you could change one thing in the world, what would it be? 5. To which charities would you mostvlike to donate? 6. If you were not constricted by time or money, what would you most like to learn? Charting Your Career Path eeooeoeeoeoeeeoaaeeoeunneeeeeeeeeeeeoeneeaeneweeooeeueeeeeeeeeeeeneeeoea What’s Important to You ? “Far and away the best prize that life offers is the chance to work hard at work worth doing.” m- Theodore Roosevelt 13 14 In choosing a career, it is important to understand your values, and Choose work and work envirom ments that best match your values. Examples of work—related vaiues include: helping others, ere— ativity, prestige, security, independence, power, money, variety and many others. The next exer~ cise will assist you in defining, understanding, and assessing your own values in relation to possible careers . H S 53‘ m rmrmgn v wfihwmw, Harringtoer Career Path VALUES Rate each of the following values based on how important you would like each to be in your work using thefollowing scale: 1 m Not Important At All 3 2 Somewhat Important Category I: Content of Work My work is challenging. My work invoives decision-making. Ihave autonomy in my work; I set my own work priorities. My work requires me to be a leader or supervisor to others. My work is detail-oriented. My work is intellectuaily stimulating. My work requires much creativity. I am continually learning on the job. My work contributes to others’ weil~ being and helps others. There are many deadlines and pressures in my work. My work has ranch variety. My work entails much self-expression. My work requires a high ievel of respon- sibility for others. My work involves risk. My work includes much adventure. I do the same daily routine in my work. Category II: Benefits of My Work I earn a large salary for my work. People respect me for the work that I do. There is room for advancement and promotion. My work has integrity. 1 am perceived as influential or powerful because of my position. My work gives back to the community. People admire or look up to me for the Work Loo-s... 2 = Not Very Important 4 = Very Important Category III: My Work Environment My workday is flexible, and I can set my own schedule. It is quiet so I can focus on my work. There is diversity among the people with whom I work. I work indoors in a pleasant setting. My work environment is fast-paced. I am safe in my work environment. The pace where I work is relaxed. ' I work with the public frequently; 1 interact with many people. My workday is predictabie. I work outdoors. Category I V: The People with Whom I Work I work frequently with err-workers in teams. I trust my coworkers. My colleagues and I are very competitive. There is harmony among my colleagues. My cowworkers care about me. Humor is important to my colleagues and me. My coileagues are very similar to me. My co—workers are loyal. My colleagues let me work on my own and do not interrupt me when I am work ing. My colleagues appreciate individualism. My colleagues differ from me, and I learn - from our differences. Once you have finished rating each item, review the list to come up with your top 10 values. Consider each value’s specific meaning to you. - , 1 Value Example 1: Intellectually Stimulating Example 2: Coworkers in teams 10. w Adapted from Stanford University Career Development Center’s “ Values Inventory. ” Anne Greenblatt, 2000 Now, look back at the four categories: Content, Benefits, Environment and People. Which cat— egory is most important to you? In future chapters, as you identify and research careers, keep the most important value category in mind; you will want to make sure that the career path you choose matches well with what you i value. 16 .g 23., Specific Meaning to You I will have to research and learn new ideas as part-of my job, as well as present and defend those ideas to cowworkers or clients. .:.magnqfififlmwfagEflznw—“zflfiymyrfiw; V's I will get along well with my co—workers, and we will frequently have to work together on projects. DIScoverlng Your Skllls Talent + Skills 4- Knowledge = Your Strengths “Each person’s greatest room for growth is in the areas of his or her greatest strengths.” m—Marcus Buckingham and Donald 0. Clifion, PhD. In the process of your career exploration, it is important to iden— tify your interests, clarify your values, assess your skills, and re— alize your talents. When you recognize your talents, your skills, your education, and your experiences, you can determine your strengths. Taking the time to recognize these areas, and combining this infor- mation with your strongest interests, your values, and your person— ality type, will lead you to explore career areas that will be challenging and satisfying. Consider that skills are easier to develop if you have the talent to learn them; course work is easier to accomplish if there is interest and a natural ability. How do you begin to learn about your own skills and talents? It is often difficult to distinguish a talent from a skill. Skills are something you have acquired or learned. They are defined as the ability to do something well, especially as a result of experience. A talent is a natural ability. Wehsteris Dictionary de- fines skill as, “A learned power of doing a thing competently.” Com- bining these key elements can lead you to more accurate information about yourself. To begin recognizing your skills, think about your accomplishments and achievements. What skills have you already developed through course work, part-time jobs, volunteer work, and school activities? For example, you may have been a member of the yearbook staff: What were your tasks on the staff; what is one accomplishment you achieved during your time on the staff? If you have worked a part— time job: what were your tasks; what was a difficult situation you handled; what did you‘enj oy; what did you dislike? If you have been a member of an organization and were responsible for a large event: what were your tasks; what was an accomplishment; what did you learn? Recognizing skills you have and enjoy using increases your chances of being a more productive and successful person. Charting Your Career Path eoeeeeeeeeeedoes:eeeieeeeeealsoeaterseeeeeeeoaaeoeeeeeeooaeaoeeeoeeaeeaeoeeee Assessing Your Strengths and Talents “Once you know your skills, you have the building blocks of your occupation, and with these building blocks, you can define an occupation you love to do.” —Rz‘chard Bolles. l9 SKILLS Think of two activities you are currently doing or have participated in during the past that involve(d) a great deal of energy and focus. Briefly de— scribe the activity, then detail the major tasks, your accom— plishments, likes, dislikes, what you learned, etc. Next, write down the skills you de- veloped during this activity. Refer to the skills list on pages 24—25 to help you name your skills. The sample below will also help you brainstorm. As you go through each ac— tivity and name your skills, place a check by those skills on pages 24—25 that you have used in your activities. This will help track your skills. Sample Activity: As Ropes Director, Kim worked at a girls’ camp the summer between her fresh— men and sophomore years in college. Your activities: Use the list on pages 24-25 to identify and name your skills from your activities. b Ropes Director (Sample) b Responsible for the safety of staff and campers in her area b Teach campers and staff safety _ rules, belaying techniques, and the use of the harness b Motivate campers on ropes course to help challenge them and help them overcome their fears } Create lesson plans for low ropes activities b Really enjoyed helping campers > Teaching low ropes to younger y Leadership and staff get past fears and campers because they don’t . wave on to the next step ' understand the concept of team ’ OPen to new ideas _ _ ‘ building . m ) Really enjoyed being in charge \ b Patience... mg” and bemg m p Self-Confidence > Organization >WW>WW> p Evaluate your skills from this exefcise. Remember, skills are those things you do well, usually resulting from experience. Most of the skills you have listed are transferable skills. Transferable skills are those skills that you can use in any career or field regardless of Where you have developed them. 21 Charting Your gorge? Park Let’s go a step further and determine what skills you enjoy using the most. Look through the skills you checked off on pages 2445. you find your strongest skills in one or two of the skill determine where most of your skills fall. Do they fall u Communication, or Research and Investigation? Or do y skills? List the categories that best fit your skills at this t Do some skills come up regularly? Do categories? Look at each category and nder Management and Administration, on have a several categories that fit your ime. You can list one or more below: Are the skills in the above categories skills you want to build on? Are there skill categories you would like to develop further? Place an asterisk (*) next to those skill cate further. As you research careers that you find of interest in your career library on campus or on the web, be sure they include some of your favorite skill cat- egories. For example, counselors work in crisis intervention, rehabilitation, guidance, etc. They are problemusolvers with good communication and counseling skills. Interpersonal skills are a must, and their work can involve working with a range of people from kids to senior citizens, physically challenged or mentally challenged, one on one or on the phone. If you look at the categories on pages 24-25, you will find that counselors match up closely with the communications and human ser— vices categories. You have talent! Take another look at your list. What do YQUWCOH". sider to'be your talents, those things‘tlr'a‘t“ "demo gories and specific skills you would like to develop , naturally to you? You say you don’t have any? You don’t have to be an actor or professional athlete or artist or singer to have natural talents. You have talent. Not sure what your talents are? Here are a few suggestions to start recognizing them: Ask people who know you. What do they consider your talents to be? Go back to age 12 or 13. What did you love to do and that made time fly? Did you like to build or create things, play on the computer, sing, dance, play an instrument, play sports, collect things, fix things, tear apart things and put them back to— gather? The next exercise will allow you to assess your talents. Indiana University Career Developmentiflenter- ; = , a _, gm r I g . _ . i. ,. ,. .m. .i... . - ‘- - . ., .. . . r. - _. q ,..i n . mg I , , 3:”; .4. ,:,. .. .I ,. _,, _ . ) r .r aqua“... .n yr: Write down three to five natural talents. These are talents you have always had, not skills you have acquired or learned. Example: Talent: I have always had a knack for (lecorating. My family members and friends always ask my opinion when decorating a room. Talents: How are you using your talents today? Compare your talents and your skills list. How do your talents complement your skills? What skills would you like to further develop to enhance your natural talents and abilities? Adapted from Hire: The Job Hunting/Career—Life Planning Guide, 2nd Edition (Chap. II). Connie Harris, Michael Henle, Michael Stokleton. . .‘ Adagtedfrgflm Stanfard’s Printable Worksheets {Functional Skills, Anne Greenblatt, 2000) an the Stanford Career Development Web site: http://wwm stem fordedu/dept/ CD C/ g mphics/pdfsfl‘ ransfSk. pd f w Law: a? mu 25 Charting Your Career Path development in college. They will help you to de— termine What career fields you want to explore. If youliave a natural desire to inquire about theo~ ries or facts, or conduct research, you may find that the sciences or social sciences are courses you want to include in your academic planning so that you can develop skills such as analyzing, research— ing, and problem solving. If you have natural in" terests and talents in decorating, drawing, and seeing possibilities, you may want to take design classes to further develop your skills. If you have developed skills in working with people and have a desire to help others, you may consider majors in Psychology, Sociology, AnthrOpology, History, Social Work, English, Communications, Nursing, etc. These are just a few examples. Combining your skills, values, interests, and pen sonality preferences will be helpful in narrowing your options for careers associated withig‘your Ina— jors. Knowing your skills Will also help you as you begin your search for employment. Liberal arts stu~ dents take courses in a Wide range of areas. Emw ployers appreciate the diversity of knoiyledge in The Realization of Your different areas. Diversifying your course work can, be a way of developing the skills that organiza- Strengflls tions are seeking. How does it feel to know you have skills and talents? You have natural talents that you can utilize during your college years and in your career. You have many skills that you have already learned or acquired from your education and your experiences. You are also beginning to understand what skills you enjoy using. Can these skills enhance your natural talents? Are you proficient in some skills be- cause they are related to your natural talents? What do you feel are areas you would want to develop? These are questions that are central to your 26 Indiana Universityrr-Gareer Development Center ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2008 for the course EAD 315 taught by Professor Brown/dickey during the Fall '07 term at Michigan State University.

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