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THOMSON REUTERS LEGAL EXECUTIVE INSTITUTEARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN LAW: THE STATE OF PLAY 2016 Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its impact and applications in the legal profession is examined in this white paper by Michael Mills, Co-Founder & Chief Strategy Officer of Neota Logic, a provider of intelligent software. Mills analyzes AI – what the author calls a “big forest of academic and commercial work around ‘the science and engineering of making intelligent machines’” – and how AI is being implemented in legal areas such as e-discovery, legal research, compliance, contract analysis, case prediction and document automation.by Michael Mills
2ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN LAW: THE STATE OF PLAY 2016INTRODUCTIONGoogle Plays Go, Wins! No, that’s not another unpublished Dr. Seuss book. It’s the dramatic outcome of artificial intelligence research at Google’s Deep Mind subsidiary, whose AlphaGo program recently won five straight games against the top-ranked Go master in Europe. The game of Go is 2,500 years old and, despite its simple rules, is many orders of magnitude more complex than chess.What is most remarkable about AlphaGo’s victory is that AlphaGo was not “taught” how to play Go. Instead, its multilayer neural network learned how to play, and then how to win, by playing millions of games and observing the winning strategies.Ten years ago, IBM Deep Blue defeated the reigning world champion chess player. Five years ago, IBM Watson defeated the two best Jeopardy players. One year ago, Google Deep Mind learned to play, and win, 46 old Atari arcade games. Today, Deep Mind plays Go, wins. (Facebook AI Research is playing Go too, and you can watch.)These stunning and rapid advances in software that does what humans do, but better, invite not only an optimistic question – what next? – but also a worried warning. In an editorial accompanying publication of the AlphaGo research, the journal Naturewrote:As the use of deep neural network systems spreads into everyday life – they are already used to analyze and recommend financial transactions – it raises an interesting concept for humans and their relationships with machines. The machine becomes an oracle; its pronouncements have to be believed.When a conventional computer tells an engineer to place a rivet or a weld in a specific place on an aircraft wing, the engineer – if he or she wishes – can lift the machine’s lid and examine the assumptions and calculations inside. That is why the rest of us are happy to fly. Intuitive machines will need more than trust: they will demand faith.So, what does this mean for law?The other day, a search for “artificial intelligence in law” produced 86,400 results from just the News section of Google’s vast index. From the Web as a whole, 32.8 million results, and from Videos – 261,000, beginning with Jude Law’s role as Gigolo Joe in the movie “A.I.” (thank you, RankBrain).