PUBLIC HEALTH TEST 2 OBJECTIVES

PUBLIC HEALTH TEST 2 OBJECTIVES - BIOMEDICAL BASIS OF...

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BIOMEDICAL BASIS OF PUBLIC HEALTH Chapter 9 – The Conquest of Infectious Diseases 1. Describe the Chain of Infection The chain of infectious disease begins with an infectious agent such as a pathogen, then the infectious agent finds a reservoir, a place where it can grow and reproduce. Next is the portal of exit, an opening that allows it to exit the reservoir; from which it moves or is carried to another host/place through a mode of direct or indirect transmission. The infectious agent has traveled to its next destination, a susceptible host, where it enters through a portal of entry which for a human could be the mouth, eyes, or nose. From here the chain repeats itself as the disease spreads. 2. Discuss the various modes of transmission for infectious diseases Directly by person to person Indirectly by means of water, contaminated food and/or vectors (insects & animals). Vector-borne illnesses, including malaria, yellow fever and West Nile encephalitis, most often use an insect as a means of transmission. Through the air by means of aerosols, and water droplets produced when a person sneezes and coughs. Infectious agents can also be transmitted through everyday surfaces touched by a contagious person. These means involves hand-to- nose route transmission. Gastrointestinal infections, such as cholera, cryptosporidiosis and diphtheria spread through fecal-oral route. These cases result from poor hygiene or contamination of drinking water. 3. Discuss ways in which PH professionals can break the chain of infection PH professionals can break the chain of infection starting at link 1. At link 1, the pathogen can be killed, for example, by using an antibiotic to destroy the disease causing bacteria. At link 2, one could eliminate a reservoir that harbors the pathogen, for example, adequate water and sewage treatment prevents the spread of water- borne diseases. At link 3, transmission from one host to another could be prevented by quarantining infected individuals. At link 4, the resistance of hosts can be increased by immunization, which stimulates the body’s immune system to recognize the pathogen and to attack it during any future exposure. 4. List blood borne pathogens I. HIV/AIDS II. Hepatitis B and C Chapter 10 – The Resurgence of Infectious Diseases 1. Discuss the biomedical basis for HIV/AIDS: a. Include the modes of transmission b. Acute infection
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c. Latent period d. AIDS e. HAART Therapy The course of infection with HIV takes place over a number of years. After being exposed to HIV, a person would experience an acute infection of flu – like symptoms for a few weeks, during which time the virus is present in the blood and body fluids, and may be easily transmitted to others. The body’s immune system responds as it would to any viral infection, producing specific antibodies that eliminate most of the circulating viruses. The infection then enters a latent period, with the viruses mostly hidden in the DNA of the T4 cells. During this
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