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Natalie CookMs. DenneyAP BiologyLab #8POPULATION GENETICS AND EVOLUTIONPURPOSE: This lab will allow for the exploration of the Hardy-Weinberg law of genetic equilibrium in depth by studying the relationship between evolution and changes in allele frequencies in a sample population, the class. HYPOTHESIS: Because the Hardy-Weinberg law conditions are met in Case I, p and q frequencies are likely to be similar. However, in Case II, which involves a 100% selection against the homozygous recessive individual, p frequencies will probably increase while q frequencies are likely to decrease. MATERIALS:•Class (population)•Index cards labeled with alleles A or a •PTC test stripsPROCEDURE:Part IA- Estimating Allele Frequencies for a Specific Trait within a Sample Population1.Tear off a short strip of PTC test paper and press it to the tip of the tongue. PTC tasters will notice a bitter taste while non-PTC tasters will not.2.A decimal number representing the frequency of tasters (p2+2pq) should be calculated by dividing the number of tasters in the class by the total number of students in the class. A decimal number representing the frequency of the non-tasters (q2) can be obtained by dividing the number of non-tasters by the total number of students. Values should be recorded in Table 8.1.3.The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to determine the frequencies (p and q) of the two alleles. The frequency q can be calculated by taking the square root of q2. Once q has
been determined, p can be found using the equation 1-q=p. The values for the North