Lab 8- Genetics - Natalie Cook AP Biology POPULATION...

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Natalie Cook Ms. Denney AP Biology Lab #8 POPULATION GENETICS AND EVOLUTION PURPOSE: This lab will allow for the exploration of the Hardy-Weinberg law of genetic equilibrium in depth by studying the relationship between evolution and changes in allele frequencies in a sample population, the class. HYPOTHESIS: Because the Hardy-Weinberg law conditions are met in Case I, p and q frequencies are likely to be similar. However, in Case II, which involves a 100% selection against the homozygous recessive individual, p frequencies will probably increase while q frequencies are likely to decrease. MATERIALS: Class (population) Index cards labeled with alleles A or a PTC test strips PROCEDURE: Part IA- Estimating Allele Frequencies for a Specific Trait within a Sample Population 1. Tear off a short strip of PTC test paper and press it to the tip of the tongue. PTC tasters will notice a bitter taste while non-PTC tasters will not. 2. A decimal number representing the frequency of tasters (p2+2pq) should be calculated by dividing the number of tasters in the class by the total number of students in the class. A decimal number representing the frequency of the non-tasters (q2) can be obtained by dividing the number of non-tasters by the total number of students. Values should be recorded in Table 8.1. 3. The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to determine the frequencies (p and q) of the two alleles. The frequency q can be calculated by taking the square root of q2. Once q has
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been determined, p can be found using the equation 1-q=p. The values for the North
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