formative evaluation

formative evaluation - FORMATIVE EVALUATION Pre-Campaign...

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Unformatted text preview: FORMATIVE EVALUATION Pre-Campaign Audience Research Get to know your audience… Need feedback because… audience members are different than you HARD DATA HELPS: Challenge assumptions Supplement intuition Correct conventional wisdom Stimulate creativity Two Basic Stages I. PRE-PRODUCTION Gather background info about audience -- Characteristics -- Predispositions -- Preferences Two stages II. MESSAGE PRE-TESTING Measure Audience Responses -- Comprehension -- Believability -- Emotions -- Persuasiveness Audience Analysis Research USEFUL INPUTS FOR CAMPAIGN DESIGN -- STRATEGY DECISIONS -- CREATIVE EXECUTION What does the campaign need to accomplish? Which strategies are promising? What ideas might work? Research… Reveals LEVERS & HOT BUTTONS Avoids pitfalls: -- BOOMERANG -- REDUNDANCY -- BOREDOM -- Research Campaign xo Organization oo o Feedback oooox xoooo ooooxo ooxooo oooxoo oooooo o o MULTI-BILLION $ BUSINESS ADVERTISING PUBLIC RELATIONS POLITICAL PUBLIC SERVICE CLASS PROJECT: PLANNING PHASE Formative evaluation info used in: POLITICAL PROJECT: Poll data provided HEALTH PROJECT: Collect survey data Political project Poll findings in MSU student precincts Simulation examples… Candidate: 40% name familiarity Issues: 80% are pro-choice 60% oppose gas tax increase Media: 70% read State News frequently Health project Group conducts survey of audience Questions about… knowledge level attitudes messenger credibility Pre-production: Background factors Demographics Media channel usage patterns communication Interpersonal Demographics: the Big 3 Sex Age Social class Mostly used to describe target audiences… by correlating with channels and behaviors Channels… many options TV spots vs. Websites Newspapers vs. radio -- Campus paper vs. City paper Also: Prior exposure to topic… which messages? Interpersonal Topical networks… who connects with? about topic… how much? Discussions Personal influence… exposed? More pre-production: Predispositions Current Beliefs knowledge and Images and Values level Attitudes Salience/Involvement Behavior Ability patterns to perform Audience Predispositions 1. EXISTING KNOWLEDGE of TOPIC -- Information holding -- Information gaps -- Misinformation 2. SUBJECTIVE BELIEFS & IMAGES Likelihood …behavior of experiencing outcomes of Favorability of impressions of product 3. VALUES & ATTITUDES Desirability of outcomes and attributes inclinations Positive/Negative 4. SALIENCE & INVOLVEMENT Importance Degree of outcomes or attributes of interest or concern in topic 5. BEHAVIOR PATTERNS Frequency Situational of actions acts: when and where? 6. CAPABILITY & SELF-EFFICACY For challenging health behaviors that require complex skills, dedicated effort, real sacrifice… -- driving safely (vs. buckling) -- sticking with diet (vs. starting the diet) -- stopping smoking (vs. smoking outdoors) -- working out daily (vs. walking weekly) Also: RESPONSIVENESS TO POTENTIAL …..SOURCES AND PERSUASIVE APPEALS ………………. Credibility ratings for: -- sponsor -- messengers ratings for: -- arguments -- claims Persuasiveness Measure on 0 to 10 scale (low to high) Credibility ratings: Sponsors Alcohol Sexual Assault Olin Health Center Dept of Student Life Dept of Public Safety ASMSU Responsible Hospitality Council Credibility ratings: Messengers Alcohol Sexual Assault Physician Police officer MSU President Student victim Typical student High-profile athlete Duck character Argument ratings: Buckling example ___ Buckle because it’s the law ___ Buckle to avoid fine ___ Buckle to prevent facial injuries ___ Buckle to protect self from pickup trucks ___ Buckle to save money on car insurance ___ Buckle as good example for passengers ___ Buckle so can walk away from crash Deconstruct argument data into components Why rating is high or low: example -- Beliefs: belts won’t protect from truck -- Salience: $25 fine is no big deal -- Values: Disrespect the law Two stages MESSAGE PRE-TESTING Measure Audience Responses -- Comprehension -- Believability -- Emotions -- Persuasiveness Measures Assess effectiveness: VERY FAIRLY SLIGHTLY Score message qualities: INFORMATIVE MEMORABLE ENJOYABLE CONVINCING ON-TARGET Identify weaknesses Does message have any negative features? PREACHY DISTURBING CONFUSING IRRITATING DULL MISLEADING IRRELEVANT SUMMATIVE EVALUATION Tracking effects of campaign to… Enable mid-course correction degree of impact Demonstrate Summative Research Methods 1. TRENDS IN TARGET RESPONSES -- Up or Down changes over time HEALTH BEHAVIOR PRACTICES (annual stats… sales, arrests, deaths) ELECTION VOTING INTENTIONS (weekly opinion poll findings) summative methods: 2. FIELD EXPERIMENTAL TRIAL Compare treatment vs. control conditions -- Disseminate campaign messages to certain locales (or subgroups) -- Measure health/political summative methods: 3. CORRELATION BETWEEN LEVEL & RESPONSES EXPOSURE high Compare audiences who have vs. low exposure to campaign Collect data using survey to measure: -- amount of exposure -- knowledge, attitudes, behaviors What’s a survey/poll? 1. DRAW A SAMPLE OF PEOPLE 2. CREATE QUESTIONS / ITEMS 3. COLLECT DATA via Phone… Online Site… Questionnaire 4. TABULATE… Percents & Means Other method: focus group Assemble group (N=10-12) Pose open-end questions Stimulate discussion with probes Get reactions to stimuli Interpret array of comments ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/22/2008 for the course COM 475 taught by Professor Kyleandrews during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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