Geology FInal Review

Geology FInal Review - Oceanography Concept Checks CHAPTER...

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Oceanography Concept Checks CHAPTER 6 1. How are atoms different from molecules? Molecule- a group of atoms held together by chemical bonds Atom- simplest form; cannot be broken down by chemical means 2. What holds molecules together? Chemical bonds- the energy relationships between atoms that hold molecules together, formed when electrons are shared between atoms or moved from one atom to another 3. Why is water a polar molecule? What properties of water derive from its polar nature? It has a positive end that attracts negatively charged particles, and a negative end that attracts positively charged particles When water comes to contact with a compound whose elements are held together by opposite electrical charges, like salt, polar water molecule will separate that compound’s elements 4. What familiar property of water is due to its cohesion? The unusually high surface tension, which allows things to be placed on it and to fill a glass above its rim; due to the hydrogen bonds 5. How is heat different from temperature? Heat is the energy produced by random vibration of atoms or molecules; measure of how many are vibrating and how rapidly Temperature only measures how rapidly they are vibrating; temperature is an object’s response to the input or removal of heat 6. What is meant by heat capacity? Why is the heat capacity of water unique? Heat capacity- measure of the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1degree Celsius; water’s heat capacity is exceptionally high 7. What factors affect the density of water? Why does cold air or water tend to sink? What role does salinity play? Temperature and salinity affect water density; cold, salty water tends to sink 8. How is water’s density affected by freezing? Why does ice float? Ice is less dense than liquid water because the molecules are packed less efficiently
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9. What is the difference between sensible and nonsensible heat? Sensible heat can be sensed by a temperature change measurable on a thermometer Nonsensible heat is known as “latent” 10. What’s the latent heat of fusion of water? The latent heat of vaporization? Why does we use the term latent ? Latent heat of fusion- heat removes from a liquid during freezing that produces a change of state but not a change in temperature “Latent” applies to heat input that does not cause a temperature change but does produce a change of state 11. How do the properties of seawater differ from those of fresh water? Seawater has a slightly higher boiling point and slightly lower freezing point, than fresh water 12. What is thermal inertia? The tendency to resist a change in temperature with the gain or loss of heat energy 13. How is heat transported from tropical regions to polar regions? Masses of moving air account for about 2/3 of the poleward transfer of heat; ocean currents
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This note was uploaded on 09/22/2008 for the course GEOL 4 taught by Professor Valentine during the Spring '08 term at UCSB.

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Geology FInal Review - Oceanography Concept Checks CHAPTER...

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