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Chapter 1-3 - Chapter 1 History of Broadcast Media...

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Chapter 1 History of Broadcast Media Preconditions: SOCIAL S Urbanization U Rise in Literacy Rate, Etc. INDUSTRIAL & BUSINESS I Mass Production Techniques M Mass Media Distribution M Penny Press P Motion Pictures M Vaudeville Inventors & Inventions TECHNOLOGICAL T Phonograph (Concept) Wire W 1844 Telegraph 1 1866 Transatlantic Cable 1 1876 Telephone 1 Wireless W 1873 Maxwell's Theory 1 1888 Hertz' Confirmation 1 1896 Marconi's Patent 1 1897 Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co. 1 1899 American Marconi Founded 1 1901 First Transatlantic Wireless Message 1 1904 Fleming's Diode Patent The Inventors T Reginald Fessenden - tested his alternator on Christmas Eve, 1906, demonstrated that voice could be transmitted over the “ether.” t Fessenden’s alternator produced a continuous wave that was needed for the transmission of voice or music. t 1907 De Forest's Experiments Leading to Triode (Audion) 1 1916 De Forest's Experimental Transmissions
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Lee De Forest and the Invisible Empire L De Forest’s “Audion” made it possible to amplify weak radio signals. D The Audion modified the “Fleming valve” by inserting a wire grid between the plate of the tube and its cathode. o This invention helped make modern electronics possible Boardrooms and Courtrooms B De Forest’s audion got him into patent trouble with the Marconi Company. D Claimed the Audion infringed on the Fleming Valve patent C British Marconi and its American subsidiary dominated radio. B Radio before World War I was primarily point-to-point communication used like the telegraph. t General Electric, AT&T and Westinghouse were also interested in the radio business -- initially for telephone communications b Patents for transmitters and receivers split among these companies and others What about Nathanial Stubblefield (1892) ? What about Tesla? Nikola Tesla N 1894 - had version of electronic tube and performed transmissions. 1 1897 - had patents describing transmission experiments. 1 1915 - filed suit against Marconi. 1 1943 - Supreme Court awarded Tesla credit for some inventions formerly credited to Marconi. Radio Goes to War R During the First World War, the Navy took control of all radio operations in the U.S. Patent Pooling P The Navy assumed all responsibility for patent infringement and installed radio equipment in all of its ships. r By the end of the war, technology had advanced rapidly as a result of the Navy’s actions. The Birth of RCA T Radio Corporation of America was formed after the war R Took controlling interest of the American Marconi company T Parent company was the General Electric Company P Was in the business of point-to-point communication- this was before broadcasting became popular The Birth of RCA T RCA entered into a cross-licensing scheme to solve the patent problems the re- emerged after the war e The RCA agreement allowed GE, AT&T and Westinghouse to take advantage of each others’ discoveries e GE and Westinghouse would manufacture radio equipment, RCA would sell
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it and AT&T would build transmitters Patent Pools Aligned Major Corporations Into Two Groups P
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