Study Question Answers

Study Question Answers - Week One Study Questions 1. The...

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Week One Study Questions 1. The intervertebral disks replace the notochord in adult stages of later vertebrates. 2. One advantage of the evolution of jaws is that they can be used for defense or offense. 3. The Myxini (hagfish) is the closet taxon to vertebrates. 4. The original function of pharyngeal gills is feeding and the later function is for respiration. 5. 6. 7. Three characteristics (apomorphies) that unite all vertebrates are bone and cartilage, myoglobin, and vertebrae (backbone) 8. Myomeres: segmentally arranged body muscles. Claspers: are on the pelvic fins of males and are used for copulation. Myoglobin: and additional respiratory pigment in blood. Paedogenesis: Neural crest cells: embryonic source to many vertebrate structures including teeth, bones and cartilage skull, several types neurons, and sensory capsules in eyes. Notochord: is a flexible, rod-like structure, extending the length of the body. It provides an axis for muscle attachment and it can bend without shortening. Sessile: organisms that cannot move. 9. Salmon and trout belong to Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish), which is part of the larger group Osteichthyes. 10. The incurrent siphon to mouth helps tunicates capture food. 11. A specialized structure seen in some craniates for detecting vibration in water is called the lateral line. 12. Two apomorphies for chordates are post-anal tail and notochord. 13. The two major monophyletic groups of fishes are Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes. 14. Jaws of vertebrates derived from the modification of one or more gill arches. 15. In most vertebrates the kidney functions to remove nitrogenous and other wastes in the body. The liver functions as protein and fat metabolism. 16. Hagfish are scavengers upon dead fish or small polychaeates and mollusks. Week Two Study Questions
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Study Question Answers - Week One Study Questions 1. The...

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