Criminology Research Paper - Introduction Can you think...

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Introduction: Can you think back to when you were sixteen years old? Probably a sophomore in high school. Still living with your parents, maybe even learning how to drive. Back when your biggest problems were math tests and just trying to fit in. Now can you imagine living with adults who are not your blood relatives? Or running away with no money or anywhere to go? Then imagine meeting an adult who takes advantage of you and subjects you to having sex with them and others for money. They threaten your life if you ever speak of what you’ve done, and beat you if you don’t follow the rules set forth while under their care. An adult, who is supposed to take care of and teach you right from wrong is pimping you out for their own profit. But you’re only sixteen years old. Trig tests suddenly don’t seem so bad now do they? In U.S. v. Willoughby, this is exactly what happened to a young girl. Identified as SW for safety reasons, she ran away at the age of sixteen and met a man named Willoughby. A crack dealer, who forced her to have sex with him every day; not only vaginally but anally and with the use of beads. The two had met at a party and soon thereafter SW was living at his house with him and his 8 year old. Soon into her involvement with Willoughby, he made her call clients and set up “dates”. He would drive her where agreed upon, arm her with two condoms and then wait for her to finish. The only rule was to not kiss them on the mouth because that privilege was reserved for him alone. He also made her walk a known prostitution track in Toledo to solicit herself. Eventually he started beating her when she didn’t follow his rules. SW wanted to return to her foster parents but wasn’t allowed to. It wasn’t until she bit her lips hard enough to draw blood and give the illusion of vomiting blood that he agreed to take her back. He left with a warning of harm to her and her family if she ever spoke of what transpired between them.
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A jury convicted Willoughby of sex trafficking a minor through force, fraud, or coercion in violation of18 U.S.C. § 1591(a) and (b). He was sentenced to 360 months of imprisonment (742 F.3d 229, 93 Fed. R. Evid. Serv. 727). Keeping prior convictions, persistent offenders and a violent/non- predicate in mind NYS Penal code has a myriad of laws and punishments pertaining to child abuse. Because sex rings are so vast and contain different levels and types of abuse, the crime is broadened across many different codes. Not one, but many laws are violated when sex rings come into play. Rape, forcible touching, prostitution, promoting obscenity, sexual abuse and sex trafficking are just a few to mention. Most fall into Class D felonies, non-violent, which is only probation. When violence is introduced, jail time is 2-7 years (NYS Penal Code S70.02). The more heinous crimes like predatory sexual assault is a Class A Felony, which yields 20 years to life (NYS Penal Code S130.95). The lesser crimes such as unlawful imprisonment in the second degree, are only Class A misdemeanors (NYS Penal Code S135.05). This type of sentence only allows up to one year
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