Psych Notes Prelim 1 - Psych Notes Module 1 Psychology-...

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Psych Notes Module 1 Psychology- Scientific behavior and mental processes. Wilhelm Wundt- First psych. experiment. 3 Main levels of biophysical approach: -Biological -Psychological -Social-Cultural Module 2 Hindsight Bias- Tendency to believe that after learning an outcome that we have foreseen it. Overconfidence- Contaminates everyday judgments. Module 3 Case Study- A study of one person in great depth in the hope of revealing things true of us all. False Consensus Effect- Tendency to overestimate others’ agreements. Naturalistic Observation- Watching without manipulating Correlation Coefficient- Statistical measure of a relationship, how closely two things vary together and thus how well one predicts the other. R is the agreement between to variables and r squared is the actual value between the two. Illusory Correlation- A perceived nonexistent(causation does not mean correlation) correlation. Double Blind Procedure- When neither RA nor subject know what is placebo and which is not. Statistical Significance- When sample averages are reliable and the difference between them is relatively large. Module 55 Attribution Theory- Suggests how we explain someone’s behavior, by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition. Fundamental Attribution Error- The tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition. Foot-In-The-Door-Phenomenon- The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. Opposite of Reciprocal Concessions Module 56 Conformity- Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard Normative Social Influence- Influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
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Informational Social Influence- Influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality. Social Facilitation- Stronger responses on simple of well-learned tasks in the presence of others Social Loafing- The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable. Deindividuation- The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. Group Polarization- The enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group. Groupthink- The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives. Module 57 Ingroup- “Us” people with whom one shares a common identity. Outgroup- “Them” those perceived as different or apart from one’s ingroup. Ingroup Bias- The tendency to favor one’s own group
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This note was uploaded on 09/22/2008 for the course PSYCH 1101 taught by Professor Maas, j during the Fall '06 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Psych Notes Prelim 1 - Psych Notes Module 1 Psychology-...

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