HarrisonIntro2007-Methods

HarrisonIntro2007-Methods - RESEARCH METHODS OUTLINE...

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Unformatted text preview: RESEARCH METHODS OUTLINE PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE CASE HISTORY TEST METHOD SURVEY METHOD OBSERVATIONAL METHOD CORRELATIONAL METHOD EXPERIMENTAL METHOD 1 PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE HOW DO WE EXPLAIN BEHAVIOR? IN THE SCIENCES: MOST COMMON EXPLANATION: REIFICATION EXPLANATION BY LABELING WHAT ABOUT THE LEVEL OF EXPLAINATION? PSYCHOLOGY BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS 2 WHO WILL EXPLAIN PHYSICS? WE CAN NO LONGER LOOK TO PHYSICS FOR AN ABSOLUTE EXPLANATION REVOLUTIONS IN PHYSICS NEWTON & THE APPLE TREE EINSTEIN PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY "GOD DOES NOT PLAY DICE" HEISENBURG'S PHYSICS THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE 3 THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE REDUCES EXPLANATION IN PHYSICS TO THE LEVEL OF EXPLANATION OF THE OTHER SCIENCES 4 Karl Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle 1. You can speak with certainty only about that which you have observed. 2. The very act of observing changes that which is observed. 5 RESEARCH TERMS FACTUAL STATEMENTS CLASS PERFORMANCE & AROUSAL LEVEL MURDER & TEMPERATURE EMPIRICAL LAWS PERFORMANCE IS RELATED TO AROUSAL LEVEL THE YERKESDODSON LAW THEORY HYPOTHESIS AROUSAL THEORY 6 The Yerkes Dodson Law P E R F O R M A N C E LOW A R O U S A L OPTIMAL POINT HIGH 7 The Reticular Activating System Seymour Simon, 1997 Arousal Theory: RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM 8 HOW DO WE STUDY BEHAVIOR? CASE HISTORY RETROSPECTIVE RECONSTRUCTION FREUD & "ANNA O" (HYSTERIA) SINGLESUBJECT EXPERIMENT ABAB DESIGN SELFABUSIVE BEHAVIOR MULTIPLE BASELINE DESIGN SPASMODIC TORTICOLLIS 9 SingleSubject Experimental Designs 10 TEST METHOD SURVEY METHOD OBSERVATIONAL METHOD JANE GOODALL PRIMATES IN AFRICA MASTERS & JOHNSON SEXUAL BEHAVIOR 11 Correlational Method ALLOWS PREDICTION OF ONE VARIABLE FROM THE LEVEL OF ANOTHER VARIABLE VT FOOTBALL & CITY HOH SUPPLY r = 0.00 TO 1.00 r = POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE r = +1.00 OR 1.00 = PERFECT COEFFICIENT OF DETERMINATION ALLOWS MAGNITUDE COMPARISON (r = .7) Versus (r = .5) 12 A Negative Correlation Watching TV& Grades 13 Experimental Method MUST MANIPULATE A VARIABLE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE MUST MEASURE A VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARIABLE ALLOWS CAUSALITY INFERENCE MUST HAVE CONTROL GROUPS CREST TOOTHPASTE PREVENTS CAVITIES 14 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2008 for the course PSYC 2004 taught by Professor Dmharris during the Fall '06 term at Virginia Tech.

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