Soc_5_Ethnography_Nov_20_2007

Soc_5_Ethnography_Nov_20_2007 - Participant Observation...

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Unformatted text preview: Participant Observation/ Ethnography Sociology 5 November 15 & 20, 2007 Irene Bloemraad Review regression analysis a method of data analysis where the researcher represents the distribution of data using a mathematical equation A popular form of linear regression is Ordinary Least Squares (OLS); the DV must be interval or ratio, the IVs can be of any type FYI - other types of regression analysis are used for variables at the nominal level (e.g., multinomial, logistic) and ordinal level (e.g., ordered logit) Pros and Cons of Statistics Advantages An elegant way to summarize & compare lots of data efficiently. It provides a way to measure the strength of association between variables, holding other variables constant. Disadvantages Statistical correlation does not prove causality, it only suggests correlation. It is only as good as the data collection (e.g., a good probability sample, non-biased questions, etc.) Statistical models artificially impose some regularity (e.g. linear view of world) that might miss important nuances. Defining Ethnography ethnography or participant observation or field research research done by being a direct witness to people's interaction in social environments [using observation]; often also means getting involved in those social situations to understand what they are like to participants. Participant Observationa continuum Only observer Active participant Steps in Ethnographic Research 1. Getting ready (pre-data collection) 2. Collecting observational data 3. Analyzing data/ drawing conclusions 1. Getting Ready Choose your research site (who, what, where) Why there? [theory] Gaining entry process, ethics. Building trust, managing relations, establishing "rapport". Insider/ outsider dilemmas how the researcher influences the data. 2. Collecting Data multi-step process: scribble key words; initial jottings reconstruct a full narrative of observations once out of the field code record observations as soon as possible, during or soon after fieldwork 2. Collecting Data, con't record as much as possible; do not screen out `insignificant' observations early on be as concrete as possible distinguish verbatim conversation from paraphrased accounts include your thoughts, actions, speech Practicing Fieldnotes Tridentine Latin Mass: Last Sunday after Pentecost http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vMJ aDU7x_Xo Rev. Sutton Old Prayer Hymn (Baptist) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pp0i 2rQB-Xw 3. Analyzing Observational Data use inductive and deductive thinking manifest coding of what people say and latent coding of underlying meaning of what you see and hear use theoretical memos interpretative notes to yourself, based on reading field observations to help analyze the data Coding - Example Two businessmen (? given their laptop computers) are wearing leather jackets, khakis, button-down shirts and talking. I hear snatches of conversation about a business deal (?) and a ball game one went to recently. They walk shoulder to shoulder forming a wall that others must dodge to get around. They take no notice of a middle aged woman and her small boy, struggling with a large blue suitcase. The woman pulls the boy out of their way. One of the businessmen turns his body slightly to avoid the boy, but continues the conversation without pause. Coding - Example Two businessmen (? given their laptop computers) are wearing leather jackets, khakis, button-down Work and Leisure shirts and talking. I hear snatches of conversation about a business deal (?) and a ball game one went to recently. They walk shoulder to shoulder forming a wall that others must dodge to get around. They take no notice of a middle aged woman and her small boy, struggling with a large blue suitcase. The woman pulls the boy out of their way. One of the businessmen turns his body slightly to avoid the boy, but continues the conversation without pause. Coding - Example Two businessmen (? given their laptop computers) are wearing leather jackets, khakis, button-down shirts and talking. I hear snatches of conversation Self-importance, about a business deal (?) and a ball game one lack of altruism, went to recently. They walk shoulder to shoulder preoccupation forming a wall that others must dodge to get around. They take no notice of a middle aged woman and her small boy, struggling with a large blue suitcase. The woman pulls the boy out of their way. One of the businessmen turns his body slightly to avoid the boy, but continues the conversation without pause. Coding - Example Two businessmen (? given their laptop computers) Social hierarchy? are wearing leather jackets, khakis, button-down Business men command shirts space talking. I hear snatches of conversation more and than woman about a business deal (?) and a ball game one Gender? went to recently. They walk shoulder to shoulder Business secondary to forming a wall that others must dodge to get family? around. They take no notice of a middle aged woman and her small boy, struggling with a large blue suitcase. The woman pulls the boy out of their way. One of the businessmen turns his body slightly to avoid the boy, but continues the conversation without pause. Coding - Example Two businessmen (? given their laptop computers) are wearing leather jackets, khakis, button-down shirts and talking. I hear snatches of conversation about a business deal (?) and a ball game one Self-importance ? went to recently. They walk shoulder to shoulder forming a wall The importance ofthat others must dodge to get business? They take no notice of a middle aged around. woman and Preoccupation her small boy, struggling with a large blue suitcase. The woman pulls the boy out of their way. One of the businessmen turns his body slightly to avoid the boy, but continues the conversation without pause. 3. Analyzing Data, con't Use constant comparison compare observations to see patterns be aware of filtering problem reducing detailed social interaction to partial reports by a particular person data triangulation as partial solution use of extensive quotes and field notes to be evaluated by others ...
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