WEEKLY DISCUSSIONS2Week 2: The Infrastructure of an Organization:A Systems Theory ViewIn Week 1, you examined the foundations of health care organizations, especially as they relate to mission, vision, and values, and culture and climate. The attention now turns to how these inform the development of goals and objectives, as well as policies and procedures that guide planning and day-to-day activities in health care organizations. In addition, this week you view health care organizations through the lens of systems theory.Learning ObjectivesStudents will:Differentiate between closed and open systemsAnalyze how goals, objectives, policies, procedures, and standards support an organization’s mission and valuesEvaluate a department or unit within a health care organization using the components of systems theoryPhoto Credit: Squaredpixels/iStock/Getty Images Plus/Getty ImagesRequired ReadingsMarquis, B. L., & Huston, C. J. (2015). Leadership roles and management functions in nursing: Theory and application (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.Chapter 7, “Strategic and Operational Planning” See especially Figure 7.1 on page 147. Chapter 8, “Planned Change” Organizational Change Associated With Nonlinear Dynamics (pp. 172–176) - Read this section of Chapter 8 on planned change. Consider the role of leaders in effectively managing planned change.Chapter 12, “Organizational Structure” “Organizational Culture” (pp. 274–276) There are many structures organizations take, and these structures influence how the organization functions. This chapter discusses many different organizational structures and provides insights into how these structures influence the change process, as well as leadership and management. Johnson, J. K., Miller, S. H., & Horowitz, S. D. (2008). Systems-based practice: Improving the safety and quality of patient care by recognizing and improving the systems in which we work. Retrieved from This article addresses the importance of systems-based practice (SBP) in health care workplaces. The authors state that SBP knowledge is one of six core competencies that physicians have to know in order to provide safe and proper care for their patients.Manley, K., O’Keefe, H., Jackson, C., Pearce, J., & Smith, S. (2014). A shared purpose framework to deliver person-centred, safe and effective care: Organisational transformation using practice development methodology. FoNS 2014International Practice Development Journal 4-(1). Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.Meyer, R. M., & O’Brien-Pallas, L. L. (2010). Nursing services delivery theory: An open system approach. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(12), 2828–2838. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.