Unformatted text preview: Review from Last Class
How do we evaluate a measurement of a concept?
reliability whether a particular measurement, when applied repeatedly to the same object, will yield the same result each time. (Reliability does not guarantee accuracy!) validity the extent to which an empirical measurement adequately reflects the meaning of a concept
one way to address such problems is through multiple measurement of a concept, using an index (additive) or a scale (hierarchical) (e.g., Bogardus social distance scale) Inductive Thinking in Sociology
Sociology 5, Fall 2007 Grounded Theory
A type of inductive approach to building theories from empirical data.
inductive research - start with observations, develop codes and categories, and then build a generalized model or theory based on evidence Usually used as a heuristic. Steps in Grounded Theory (Dey)
1) Begin data collection without theoretical predispositions. 2) Create codes and concepts from the data using constant comparison. 3) Generate theory through memo writing. 4) Do "theoretical sampling" of data to refine concepts and emerging theories. 5) Integrate findings and emergent theory into existing literature Moving from Data to Theory
Theory Concepts Concepts Data Data Data Data Data Coding & Codes
coding - labeling, categorizing and sorting data to organize and see patterns a code - a short word (or set of words) that identify a concept, a process or some other phenomenon of sociological interest
open coding - codes developed as you look through the data [closed coding - codes established prior to data analysis] Does album art reflect musical genre? Does album art reflect musical genre? Comparison (across genres): Comparison (within genres) Constant Comparison Coding beyond Album Covers
Research Question: How does commercial rap music represent and visualize the Black female body and Black female sexuality? Data: Rap songs in Top 100 Billboard singles in 2005 Def'n of "rap": "rhymed storytelling accompanied by highly rhythmic, electronically based music" (Rose 1994: 2) As Nasty As They Wanna Be: Commercial Rap Music and the Black Female Body - Kara Young
Is there reference to sex? (Yes/No)
Are there more than 3 references to sex in the song? Is there reference to sexual violence? (Yes/No) Is there reference to love or a committed relationship? (Yes/No) What sex are the musicians? (Male/Female/Both) Are women discussed outside of a sexual context? (Yes/No) As Nasty As They Wanna Be: Commercial Rap Music and the Black Female Body - Kara Young
Of the top 100 Billboard songs, 36 songs were rap 29 (81%) of the rap songs were performed by men only 26 (72%) songs include a sexual reference of some kind 18 (50%) songs include more than 3 explicitly sexual references 11 (31%) songs mention sexual violence 10 (28%) songs have no reference to sex, and, in fact, have no references to women whatsoever. As Nasty As They Wanna Be: Commercial Rap Music and the Black Female Body - Kara Young
"Today's rap music is largely laced with messages of sex and sexuality, constructed through the difficult lens of Black masculinity, and expressed through a grotesque objectification of Black women. Although rap music originated as a type of counter-public sphere... its co-optation has emptied it of content and turned it into a dangerous space that grants white and male America uncensored access to Black female bodies and sexuality while simultaneously restricting the conversation about acceptable forms of "Blackness."" ...
View Full Document
- Spring '07
- Sociology, black female body, Kara Young, commercial rap music