Laurens 387 Study Guide - All Available for Discriminatory...

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All Available for Discriminatory Cases After 1991: Fees: Backpay Reinstatement Damages: Punitive Compensatory Relief Capped at 50,000 if you have 100 or less employees 300,000 if you have more than 500 employees Inter rations in between *For all 4 you must prove that the employer was reckless OR malicious Employer can be found not reckless or malicious if… If they were unaware that the conduct was against the law If it was a BFOQ – Bona Fide Occupational Qualification If it was a novel area of the law – obscure…hair color? *Reckless or Malicious but ER can prove a good faith effort to comply with the law MODELS: Burdine vs Hicks Model: (Works the best when it is completely clear that there was discrimination or if there is absolutely no evidence.)
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STEP ONE: Plaintiff:  proves  prima facie case o Protected class  Usually not hard but it gets hard with disability, its not an  automatic, but that first step can be a discussion if it is a  disability (IT WILL BE ON THE EXAM)  o Minimally qualified and applied or wanted to hold job o Adverse employment action ( fired,  not hired, etc) o Position remained open was ultimately filled by a person not in  the protected class  (hiring case) OR similarly situated person  treated differently  (firing case)  STEP TWO: Then, Defendant: o Articulates  (produces) a (legitimate) non-discriminatory reason That’s it!  Defendant doesn’t PROVE anything STEP THREE: Finally Plaintiff  o PROVES Pretext (proved reasons articulated by defendant are  unworthy of belief)  plus some evidence of discrimination Or, if just pretext, jury may infer discrimination with  further discussion 
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Mixed Motive Model: (USE IF THERE IS EVIDANCE) Plaintiff  PROVES that discrimination was a motivating factor in the  adverse employment action There needs to be direct evidence Ex: boss says” I don’t think women should be  lawyers” Or circumstantial evidence Not direct but VERY peculiar/ indicative of  discrimination  Then, Defendant  PROVES (not articulate/produce) that it would have  made the same decision regardless of plaintiff’s race, sex, etc.  o If plantiff proves prong 1 and defendant fails to prove prong 2  then plantiff wins damages and fees o If plaintiff proves prong 1 and defendant proves prong 2 then  plantiff only gets fees o If plantiff doesn’t prove prong 1 case ends and he doesn’t get  anything o If defendant doesn’t prove, then plaintiff wins.  Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ) Asserted by the ER as a defense to intentional discrimination Definition:  Reasonably necessary to the normal operation of the  particular business or enterprise  o Goes to the “essence of the business”
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Laurens 387 Study Guide - All Available for Discriminatory...

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