# Chem Lab report 3 - Project 3 Formation and Dissolution of...

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Project 3: Formation and Dissolution of Kidney Stones CHM2046L-030 39096 April 7, 2017
Introduction Background This project focuses mainly on kidney stones, including their formation as well as their dissolution through the use of certain chemicals or home remedies. Kidney stones are a major problem in society, and have been around for thousands of years. Researchers estimate that one in ten people have had or will have a kidney stone at some point in their life (National Kidney Foundation, 2016). Kidney stones are formed by certain chemicals in the urine, and there are many different chemical compositions for them (National Kidney Foundation, 2016). Whenever a person is not hydrated enough, and too much waste is concentrated in a small amount of liquid, many chemicals such as calcium, oxalate, urate, cystine, xanthine, and phosphate will be attracted to crystals that form, thus resulting in kidney stones(National Kidney Foundation, 2016). Since kidney stones are such a large problem, there are many treatments to eliminate them. The most effective of these procedures is shock-wave lithotripsy, which involves the use of sound waves to blast the stone, or stones, into smaller fragments that can be passed in urine (National Kidney Foundation, 2016). Whenever all other procedures fail, doctors will resort to percutaneous nepholithotomy/nephrolithotripsy (National Kidney Foundation, 2016). Both of these procedures involve making a small incision in the back in order to access the kidney, and inserting a tube to remove the kidney stone (nepholithotomy) or breaking it up and then removing it (nephrolithotripsy) (National Kidney Foundation, 2016). In this experiment, Hydrochloric acid, as well as home remedies such as lemon juice and vinegar, will be used to dissolve kidney stones. Theory Throughout the course of this experiment, several equations involving Ksp, dilution and percent yield will be utilized (Anderson et al., 2017). Since kidney stones of calcium phosphate as well as calcium oxalate will be used, both equations need to be obtained and balanced. For calcium phosphate, 3CaCl2(aq)+ 2Na3PO4(aq)-> Ca3(PO4)2(s)+ 6NaCl (aq) represents the precipitation reaction (Anderson et al., 2017). As for calcium oxalate, Na2C2O4(aq)+ CaCl2(aq)-> CaC2O4(s)+ 2NaCl (aq) is the equation for the precipitation reaction (Anderson et al., 2017).Ksprepresents the solubility product of a substance, which is calculated by taking the mathematical product of its dissolved ion concentrations and raising them to the power of their respective stoichiometric coefficients (Clark, 2000). Whenever a solution is going to be diluted from a higher molarity to a specific, lower molarity, the investigators will use the equation M1V1=M2V2. In this equation, M1represents the initial molarity of the solution, and V1 represents the volume of the solution of molarity M1 that is required to form a volume V2 of solution with M2 molarity (Anderson et al., 2017). Lastly, to calculate percent yield, the formula [(Actual Yield - Theoretical Yield) / (Theoretical Yield)] x 100% will be used.