lecture1-intro-cells07

lecture1-intro-cells07 - WELCOME to APC100/NPB123 Course...

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Unformatted text preview: WELCOME to APC100/NPB123 Course leader: Inge Werner 1211 Haring Hall Email: [email protected] Tel: 4-8060 NPB info: Dr. Bautista ([email protected]) Course Objectives Understand how different types of cells and tissues contribute to the functions of organs and organ systems in vertebrates. Compare the basic differences between three classes of vertebrates: Fish, birds and mammals. Instructors 1. Introduction Dr. Inge Werner 2. Musculoskeletal System - Dr. Clare Yellowley 3. Respiratory System - Dr. Kent Pinkerton 4. Cardiovascular System Dr. Inge Werner 5. Digestive System - Dr. Erwin Bautista 6. Integumentary System - Dr. Fern Tablin 7. Urinary System - Dr. Erwin Bautista 8. Nervous System Kellie Whited 9. Reproductive System - Dr. Stuart Meyers Lab Instructors o Alison Weir o TAs o Respective Lecturer Exams 2 written exams (1h) 2 lab exams (1 h) Typically 36-40 multiple choice questions. Grading 2 written exams (1h): 2/3 2 lab exams (1 h): 1/3 90.0 80.0 70.0 60.0 - 100.0% = A 89.9% = B 79.9% = C 69.9% = D 1 Various Announcements Watch for announcements on your MyUCDavis course website; Lecture slides will be posted there; Order of syllabus chapters may be different from that of lectures; Labs: Bring your syllabus! Lab CDs: will be handed out on Friday. 1. INTRODUCTION A. Orientation of body and limbs B. Components of the cell C. Tissues D. Organs E. Organ Systems Terms of Position and Direction: Terms of Position and Direction: cranial Dorsal: dorsum=back; toward the back of the trunk, head, tail, limbs. (H: posterior= behind) Ventral: venter=belly; toward the belly of the trunk, head, tail, limbs. ( H: anterior= in front) cranial Cranial: cranium=head; toward the head. (H: superior=above) Caudal: cauda=tail; toward the tail. (H: inferior=below) cranial caudal Anterior Posterior caudal cranial caudal caudal A few more: Rostral: =structures, which are part of the head (rostrum=beak) Medial: =structures positioned toward the median plane (or midline), which divides the body into left and right Lateral: =structures positioned toward the side ANIMAL TERM Dorsal (back) Ventral (belly) Cranial (head) Rostral (parts of the head) Caudal (tail) HUMAN TERM Posterior Anterior Superior n/a Inferior 2 Planes of Section lateral Median = midsagittal plane: divides body into left and right; (Para)Sagittal plane: parallel to median plane; Transverse plane: at right angle to long axis; parallel to the ground; Frontal=dorsal=coronal plane: divides body into top (dorsal) and bottom (ventral) parts. medial Medial position Medial or midsagittal plane Lateral position Dorsal or frontal plane Transverse plane Orientation of the Limbs rostral PROXIMAL (towards body) Median Plane Transverse Planes Sagittal Planes Dorsal Planes DISTAL (away from body) Orientation of the Limbs: 1.Thoracic Limbs (forelimbs, arms) Cat Forelimb Proximal: "Upper" surface "Lower" surface Humerus, radius, ulna cranial (superior) caudal (inferior) Carpus (wrist), metacarpus, phalanges dorsal palmar Orientation of the Limbs: 1.Pelvic Limbs (hindlimbs, legs) Cat Forelimb femur "Lower" surface Proximal: "Upper" surface Femur, tibia, fibula cranial (superior) Caudal (inferior) Tarsus (ankle), metatarsus, phalanges dorsal plantar humerus radius ulna Distal: fibula tibia Cat Hindlimb Distal: "Upper" surface "Lower" surface "Upper" surface "Lower" surface 3 Cells, Tissues and Organs The Eukaryotic Cell Plasma membrane Page 1-9 Cells Tissues Organs Nucleus Peroxisome Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondrion Cell junctions Cytoplasm Lysosome Ribosomes Organ Systems Golgi apparatus Rough endoplasmic reticulum Cytoskeleton The Plasma (Cell) Membrane Nuclei: DNA replication RNA synthesis Mitochondria: respiration Rough ER/ Ribosomes: Synthesis of lipids Storage/metabolism/ Protein synthesis Golgi Vesicles: Packaging and transport of proteins Segregates intra- and extracellular environments; Consists of a phospholipid bilayer: hydrophilic surfaces/hydrophobic core; Contains proteins and other macromolecules; Contains cell junctions. Plasma Membranes Peroxisomes/ Lysosomes: Breakdown and storage of materials permit cell communication and formation of tissues Cell Junctions: Tissues = a collection of cells and intercellular materials specialized for a particular function. Occluding: Zona occludens= tight junctions Restrict movement of substances between cells Attach cells to each other or surrounding matrix Anchoring: Belt desmosomes=zonula adherens Spot desmosomes=macula adherens Hemidesmosomes There are 4 basic tissues: 1. Muscle tissue 2. Epithelial tissue 3. Connective tissue 4. Nervous tissue Communicating: Gap junctions Permit the passage of ions and molecules between cells 4 1. Muscle Tissue contractility and conductivity (motion) Function: Skeletal Muscle: Striated; Voluntary! Associated with bones and cartilage Nuclei are arranged around the periphery of the cell ! - by general microscopic appearance A. Striated muscle: 1. Skeletal muscle (voluntary) 2. Cardiac muscle (involuntary) B. Smooth (involuntary) muscle Classification: Muscle Cell ("fiber") Nucleus Cardiac Muscle: Smooth Muscle: connective tissue smooth muscle Only in the heart Involuntary Cells branch (1) and are joined to one another via intercalated discs (3; communication!) Striated and multinucleate Nuclei (2) are centrally located Involuntary muscle movement; Found in the walls of the digestive tract, uterus, bladder, blood vessels and other internal organs; Cells are arranged parallel to one another and do not show any striations. 2. Epithelial Tissue Characteristics: a) Cells connected by intercellular (anchoring) junctions (on lateral surface); b) One side (=basal surface) rests upon a basal layer (basal lamina on connective tissue); c) Opposite of basal lamina is a free surface that faces a lumen (cavity) or the exterior environment. Connective tissue Digestive Tract Basal lamina Epithelium Lumen 5 - Epithelial Tissue Functions: Form boundaries (e.g. skin) Prevent desiccation (e.g. skin) Protection (e.g. skin) Compartmentalization (e.g. kidney) Secretion (exocytosis) or uptake (endocytosis) of substances (e.g. glands) Formation of gametes (reprod. organs) - Epithelial Tissue Classification into: I. Sheets (membranes) 1. Shape of the cells: c) columnar (gut) d) cuboidal (ducts in kidney, pancreas) e) squamous (blood and lymph vessels, skin) 2. Number of layers: a) one cell layer: simple b) 2+ layers: stratified II. Glands (=specialized secretory tissue) (Digestive tract!) Collecting ducts in the medulla of a mammalian kidney. Each duct is lined by simple cuboidal epithelium. Simple squamous epithelium 6 Skin (Epidermis) (vessels and skin) Trachea =pseudostratified columnar epithelium Cells appear stacked but consist of only one layer. -in bladder and ducts of the urinary system -(cells stretch, appear to be multilayered when relaxed/bunched ) 3. Connective Tissue Functions: Anchoring and support Characterized by cells embedded in abundant extracellular matrix: =protein fibers and dominant (or ground) substance (e.g. calcium salts) Classification: - Based on extracellular = pseudostratified matrix 7 - Connective Tissue TypesMatrix Calcium salts Glycoproteins Collagen, elastin, fibers Cells Osteocytes Chondrocytes Few cells Connective Tissue (brain, spinal cord, nerves) 4. Nervous Tissue Function: Bone Cartilage Dense CT Loose CT Transmits electrical (nerve impulse) and chemical (synapses) signals Two types of nerve cells: 1. Neurons: excitable 2. Neuroglial cells (glia): support, nourish and insulate neurons Few cells, less Collagen, elastin, compact than dense fibers CT Blood: sometimes considered connective tissue (matrix: lymph) Nervous Tissue Dendrites Ganglion impulse Ganglion Axon Hollow Organ: e.g. the stomach ORGANS An organ is a discrete entity with a particular physiological function. Organs have a unique vascular and nervous supply. They are composed of at least two of the four basic tissues. Lumen Wall 8 Stomach Wall: Serosa =connective tissue, cartilage, elastic fibers ORGAN SYSTEMS = Groups of organs (two or more) that work together to provide a certain physiological function. Submucosa =connective tissue, blood vessels Muscularis =layers of smooth muscle Mucosa =epithelial + connective tissue The Respiratory System Major Organs: Nose, trachea and lungs ORGAN SYSTEMS In vertebrates: 9 organ systems 1. Musculoskeletal system: Locomotion 2. Integumentary system: Interface with environment (dermis, epidermis) 3. Nervous system: Communication 4. Circulatory system: Transport 5. Reproductive system: Reproduction 6. Respiratory system: Respiration (gas exchange) 7. Urinary system: Excretion and fluid balance 8. Gastrointestinal system: Nutrient uptake and excretion of food byproducts 9. Endocrine system: Communication and control (hormones) not in this course. Next Lecture: Musculoskeletal System 1 Friday, January 5 Orientation of the Limbs Thoracic Limb Pelvic Limb (arms, forelimb) (legs, hindlimb) Proximal: "Upper" surface "Lower" surface Distal: Humerus, radius, ulna Cranial (superior) Caudal (inferior) Femur, tibia, fibula Cranial (superior) Caudal (inferior) "Upper" surface "Lower" surface Carpus (wrist), metacarpus, phalanges dorsal palmar Tarsus (ankle), metatarsus, phalanges dorsal plantar 9 ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2008 for the course APC 100 taught by Professor Kelliewhited during the Winter '07 term at UC Davis.

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