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lecture3-1blood_vessels2007 - The cardiovascular system...

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1 The Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System The cardiovascular system consists of: blood , blood vessels , the lymph system , and the heart . Arteries Veins Its primary function is transport. head2right Water head2right Gases (e.g. oxygen, CO 2 ) head2right Nutrients (e.g. carbs, fats, proteins) head2right Heat head2right Hormones (e.g. adrenalin) head2right Waste products to kidneys (e.g. urea) head2right Cells and molecules of the immune system (white blood cells, antibodies) Components of the Blood A. Acellular components: Plasma (50-55%) B. Cellular components: - Erythrocytes (red blood cells) - Leucocytes (white blood cells) - Platelets (thrombocytes) The Plasma Consists of: square4 Water: 80-90% square4 Dissolved solids: 10% Blood proteins : serum globulin, serum albumin Nutrients: glucose, fats & fatty acids, amino acids, salt ions Cellular Products : enzymes, antibodies, hormones Waste products (urea, salts) Erythrocytes function as transport containers for hemoglobin (= oxygen transport molecule) Each erythrocyte contains approx. 280 million hemoglobin molecules.
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2 Erythrocytes are head2right nucleated and large in birds and fishes head2right small, anucleated in mammals head2right produced in hematopoietic (=blood forming) tissues. Hematopoietic tissues: In fish: kidney, spleen, liver; In birds and mammals: red bone marrow (yolk sac/liver in the developing embryo) Why does hemoglobin not float freely in the blood plasma? Leukocytes nucleated, motile cells can migrate through walls of blood vessels important in the immune system: - phagocytosis of bacteria and dead cells - wound repair & inflammation - antibody production http://campus.murraystate.edu/academic/ faculty/Wade.Northington/leukocyt.htm There are 5 different types of leukocytes. Granular Leukocytes Agranular Leukocytes Neutrophils: most abundant group (60%), phagocytize bacteria & dead cells. Eosinophils: 2.3%; phagocytize antibody- antigen complexes. Basophils: least abundant (0.5%); contain histamine and heparin, important for vascular permeability and blood clotting time.
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